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PSYC 2230 (45)

CHAPTER 7

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2230
Professor
Pauline Charlton
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 7: SOCIAL NEEDS o achievement-related thought/needs o affiliation and intimacy related thought/needs o power- related thoughts/needs o important to know the origin of each need and how this need (once acquired) manifests itself through in thought, emotion, action and lifestyle. o needs affect our thoughts, emotions and desires ACQUIRED NEEDS o (2 types- larger category) o the needs listed above, overtime (through experiences) we have acquired preferences for them (i.e. an individual preferring to get into intimate relationships) o quasi-needs: last short time/situational (i.e. it rains and you need umbrella) o social needs: last long time, takes a long time to surface (i.e. because the preferences for certain social needs build through experiences, socialization and development) 4 of them = achievement, affiliation, intimacy, power (these needs function as a personality characteristic) o need: any condition within a person that is essential and necessary for life, growth, and well- being when needs are nurtured and satisfied, we live, grow, and thrive; when needs are neglected and thwarted, we are damaged, regress, and suffer o four types of needs: 1. physiological: biological 2. psychological: innate psychological process 3. social: acquired psychological process (long term) 4. quasi: situationally induced (short term)- this also counts as a acquired psychological need o commonality social and quasi needs - social origin, rather than innate. Quasi-Needs o quasi-needs are situationally induced wants and desires that arise out of a psychological context of tension and urgency to meet some specific environmental demand (ex. needing a high GPA, or needing money) o situational induced wants and desires o are also important as they add to our ongoing motivational analysis of behaviour- they affect how we feel and think, affect cognition/ emotion etc o have a sense of urgency that can dominate the consciousness o originate- situational demands and pressures. Proof that the need origin comes from the environment (and not from within) because when you make a change to the environment it will lead to a change in the quasi-need once attain this demand, the need fades- that is why they said this Q. need is not essential or necessary for life, growth and well-being (definition of a need) o it is deficiency oriented and situationally reactive o situationally induced psychological context of tension that supplies the motivation for the quasi- need o strength of quasi-need is strongly correlated with environmental pressures Social Needs o Social needs are more enduring arise from the individuals personal experience and unique developmental, cognitive and socialization histories o humans acquire social needs through experience, development, and socialization o Experiment - test how we acquire social needs (see how childhood experiences affected social needs) followed how parents raised their children (starting at the age of 5), when these children became adults their social needs were tested significant results: parents with high standards = social need of child- achievement parents who used praised (i.e. when child does something - parents keep saying good job) as a socialization technique = social need of child- affiliation (wanting to please others) from his/her peers parents who were permissive about sex and aggression = social need of child - power conclusion of experiment= social needs are not set at an early age, evidence, when someone takes on a assertive occupation, over time they will become more assertive. Did not find much correlation - except for the three mentioned above. There are some variables but not too much that are correlated with child experience. o when you acquire one of the four social needs, then they are activated (easy activation= especially those who are high in a particular social need) emotionally and behaviourally when an incentive is present (situational, like a date would be a intimacy incentive). Experience teaches us to expect positive emotional reactions in response to some incentives rather than others o other important social needs- need for cognition, structure and closure. How Social Needs Motivate Behaviour o Once acquired, social needs act as emotional and behavioural potentials activated by situational incentives The need activated incentives for each of the four social needs are as follows: 1. Achievement doing something well to show personal competence 2. Affiliation an opportunity to please others and gain their approval 3. Intimacy a warm, secure, relationship 4. Power having impact on others o each social need has a need activating incentive that triggers the need, and over time/experience we know what incentive will make us react behaviourally (positively or negatively) o social needs are mostly reactive in nature. Lie dormant within us until we encounter a potentially need satisfying incentive that brings the social need to the front of our attention in terms of our thinking, feeling and behaving. We also learn to anticipate the emergence of need relevant incentives. To satisfy your power need- gravitate towards finding a job in politics. In the meantime you will be anticipating the need incentive- i.e. join clubs and so on. ACHIEVEMENT o The need for achievement is the desire to do well relative to a standard of excellence o When facing a standard of excellence, peoples emotional reactions vary High need for achievement individuals generally respond with approach-oriented emotions (ex. hope) and behaviours whereas low need for achievement individuals (high fear of failure) generally respond with avoidance-oriented emotions (ex. anxiety) and behaviours o High-need achievers therefore choose moderately difficult tasks, quickly engage in achievement-related tasks, put forth more effort and perform better on moderately difficult tasks, persist in the face of difficulty and failure, and take a personal responsibility for successes and failures o standard of excellence and evaluation of personal competence o emotional reactions approach-oriented emotion (hope, pride) - people with high need for achievement avoidance-oriented emotions (anxiety, fear) - people with low need for achievement o behavioural responses tasks chosen- moderately difficult to difficult, don't procrastinate, energized, blame success and failure onto themselves, persist in face of difficulty - people with high need for achievement behavioural differences were shown in- latency, effort, persistence and willingness to take personal responsibility Origins of the Need for Achievement o how parenting styles in these areas affected their children's social needs in the future Socialization Influences o children develop relatively strong achievement strivings when their parents provide the following: independence training (e.g. self-reliance), high performance aspirations, realistic standards of excellence, high ability self-concepts, a positive valuing of achievement-related pursuits,
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