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PSYC 2230 Study Guide - Final Guide: Operant Conditioning, Limbic System, Belongingness

4 pages49 viewsSummer 2012

Course Code
PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese
Study Guide

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Final Exam
- Chapter 5, 6, 11, 12 most emphasized in exam
- Chapter 13 not so much
Chapter 12: Cognitive Motivation and Control Selected Concepts
1. Deci’s theory of intrinsic motivation: Intrinsic motivation arises out of need to control environment and feel
competent in that control. Thus, there is an intrinsic need to control and this leads to behaviours that exercise
control and the resulting feeling of competence
a. 2 kinds of control leading to competence:
i. When stimulation is low, one is intrinsically motivated to increase the stimulation and thus
control it and feel competent for doing so (and vice versa)
ii. Overcoming challenging situations leads to feelings of competence
b. Motivation triggered by cognitive representations: imagining a desired state triggers behaviour so as to
achieve that sate: imagine graduating triggers behaviour appropriate to obtaining a degree and
graduating. Awareness of what we want drives behaviour towards those goals
i. Mental representations activate our emotions (if imagine the goal, become excited by that, then
go into instrumental behaviour)
ii. What we want/desire arise from Id (energy source)
c. 3 types of rewards:
i. Extrinsic reward = some object/situation that satisfies expectation (cognitive representation)
ii. Intrinsic reward = feeling competence that I can control by completing a task (satisfies affective)
iii. Affective reward = positive emotional experience gained when goal is reached
d. As for control: perceived control induces behaviour rather than actual control. When lack of control is
perceived, there is a giving-up as noted in learned helplessness. Perceived lack of control has a
demotivating effect, while perceived control has a motivating effect
Chapter 11 (Summary)
Attribution Theory
- Study of decisions we make about the causes of events
- Attribute/assign causes to outcomes
- Need to make sense of events:
o Personal = individual (I brought about that particular outcome)
o Interpersonal = causes that arise in social interaction
o Impersonal = natural cause, something that happened in the environment
- Assign particular causes to other people’s behaviour
- Personal causation
- Situational causation
- Assigning causes accounts for motivations underlying their behaviour
- Dispositional forces
o Person’s ability, effort etc.
- Situational forces
o Difficulty of the task, good/bad luck etc.
Basic Assumptions
- Internal/external
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