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Psychology - Catch Up Period.docx

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York University
PSYC 2510
Richard N Lalonde

November 28, 2012 Lecture 12 Psychology – Catch Up Last Week: Video clip – Bollywood (different language) Memory – Why we forget  Ineffective encoding (lack of attention) o You cannot remember what is not there  Decay Theory o Info tends to disappear if it is not accessed o Wouldn’t remember names of people in first grade o You don’t use it, you lose it  Retroactive interference o New information entering memory impairs recall of old info o Eg. Learning a new software system gets in the way of old one  Because of the new Word program, cannot remember how to use Word Star (older Word program)  Proactive Interference o Previously stored info interferes with ability to remember similar, more recently learned material  Retrieval failure o Retrieval cue efficacy depends on how well it relates to the memory code o Eg. classical conditioning* thought about by using dogs, you are given an example on the exam about a goldfish (using wrong cues) Memory – How to remember  Maintenance Rehearsal o Rote repetition of material (only 7 at once)  Elaborative Rehearsal o Association of new info with already stored knowledge and analysis of new info o The more things you relate, and the more cues you have, the easier it is to retrieve  Deep processing o Analysis of meaning (not shallow like syllables/sound)  Mnemonics (eg. link method) o Video – Using Method of Loci (location) to remember  Eg. connecting one location of your house to two words to remember a list of 30 words (you have locations in long-term memory)  Creating simples stories to create several neural pathways; if one fails, there are others  Use visualization (even if abstract) Childhood Amnesia: The Missing Years  Inability to remember experiences that occurred during the first 2-3 years of life o Can watch videos & hear stories and recognize things but cannot remember without these aids  Cognitive explanations o Lack of sense of self o Impoverished encoding  Equipped with short-term memory but don’t know how yet o A focus on the routine (eg. important people around you, parts of house) o Different ways of thinking about the world (Concrete, less abstract) Memory – Brenda Milner (Video)  Neuropsychologist credited with many landmark discoveries in the study of human memory & the temporal lobes  Investigated the mysteries of the human brain  Disproved the common belief (at the time) that the right hemisphere was a “spare tire”  Her research breakthroughs led to the establishment of an entirely new discipline within the field of psychology – clinical neuropsychology o Psychology directed toward patient care & understanding patients’ behaviour H.M.'s Brain and the History of Memory (Video)  Operation on H.M. (in 1953) worked but left him with almost no long-term memory  He lost his ability to retain new memories  He could remember things from his life before the operation but any new face or fact, he completely forgot within minutes  Discoveries made from studying him opened the modern era of memory research, what's involved every time we say I remember (scientists are still learning from him)  Memory captures pictures, smells, sounds, events, directions - endless amounts of information every day and then seconds or decades later calls it up for us. Memories - what we've learned and what we've done - in a large sense make us who we are.  He suffered from very severe epilepsy all his life  Had major and minor seizures; Dr. Scoville thought if he could remove the part of H.M.'s brain where the seizures originated, it might stop them. o Removed most of the medial temporal lobes, including much of the hippocampus  areas where the brain converts short-term memory into long-term memory  Not needed to retrieve old memories o Reduced to one big seizure a year but got severe amnesia in return o Lost his ability to acquire new memories, to commit to
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