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Psychology - Intelligence & Psychological Testing.docx

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PSYC 2510
Richard N Lalonde

January 23, 2013 Psychology – Lecture 15 Intelligence & Psychological Testing Psychological Testing  Standardization o Uniformity of procedures o Test norms & standardization group (Percentile scores)  Reliability o Consistency of measurement o Test-retest o Internal consistency  Validity o Content validity (Representative) o Criterion-related validity (Predicted) o Construct validity (measures construct) Examining construct validity by looking at concurrent validity and discriminant validity Intelligence  Definition o Ability to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, adapt to changes in environment, etc.  G factor o General intellectual ability assumed by many theorists to underlie specific mental abilities  Psychometrics o Measurement of mental abilities, traits and processes o Common tests (Wechsler, GRE, LSAT, MCAT, GMAT) Brief history of intelligence testing  Paul Broca (1861) – relates brain size to intelligence  Franz Gall (1880s) phrenology – bumps on head used to assess mental abilities  Francis Galton (1869) – quantifies head measurements & relates to reaction times; Hereditary Genius  Alfred Binet (1905) – develops (with Simon) objective test to ID children having learning problems mental age: chronological age that corresponds with child’s performance  Lewis Terman (1916) – Stanford-Binet in US. I.Q. = (MA ÷ CA) * 100 The Psychometric Approach  IQ scores distributed “normally” o Bell-shaped curve  Very high & low scores are rare  68% of people have IQ between 85-115 Reliability & Validity of IQ Tests  Exceptionally reliablrsin the .90s  Qualified validity (within culture) o - .40 with school success o r = .60 to .80s with # years in school o Predicts occupational attainment, but not job performance Pros and Cons of IQ Tests  Pros o Predict school success o Identify gifted and non-gifted students o Good at measuring verbal, mathematical & some spatial aspect of intelligence  Cons o Offer a limited assessment of intelligence o Culture bound (eg. Flynn effect) Beyond IQ: Expanding the concept of intelligence Sternberg’s three facets of intelligence:  Analytical – academic problem-solving skills  Creative – insights, synthesis & ability to react to novel situations and stimuli  Practical – ability to grasp, understand and deal with everyday tasks Another domain of intelligence: Emotional intelligence  Identify your own and other people’s emotions accurately  Express your emotions clearly  Regulate emotions in yourself and others Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences  Linguistic  Logical/Mathematical  Spatial  Interpersonal  Intrapersonal  Musical  Bodily Kinesthetic  Naturalist Race, Culture & IQ: What is “race?”  Socio-cultural identification with psychological meaning  Numerous historical taxonomies (3 to 37 groups) o Linnaeus (1758) – geography  Americanus, Europaus, Asiaticus, Afer o Blumenbach (1795) – geography & hierarchy  Caucasian, Malay, American, Ethiopian, Mongolian  Taxonomies do not neatly map genetically o Race: When the human genome was first fully mapped in 2000, Bill Clinton, Craig Venter, and Francis Collins took the stage and pronounced that "The concept of race has no genetic or scientific basis." Great words spoken with great intentions. But what do they really mean, and where do they leave us? Our genes are nearly all the same, but that hasn't made race meaningless, or wiped out our evolving conversation about it.  Tony Frudakis and his company DNA Print Genomics believe they can identify hair, eye, and skin color and point to the genetic ancestry of test subjects by scanning their DNA. o Skin colour – melanin produced by melanocytes Can IQ Tests be Culture Free?  Different cultures foster different problem-solving strategies  Cultural values & experiences affect person’s o Attitude toward exams o Comfort in testing settings o Motivation o Rapport with test provider o Competitiveness o Ease of independent problem solving Expectations, Stereotypes & Ability Scores  Scores affected by expectations of performance.  Expectations shaped by cultural stereotypes.  Stereotype threat o Doubt one feels about his/her performance due to negative stereotypes about his/her group’s abilities o Effects of stereotype threat found for many visible minorities, low-income people, (women), & elderly Steele & Aronson (1995) (Study 2)  African-American & European-American Stanford Students  IV. Threat (makes racial stereotype of intelligence salient) o Diagnostic of ability (threat) o Nondiagnostic (no threat – control)  DV. Performance on a verbal test Steele & Aronson (1995) (Study 4)  African-American & European-Americ
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