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PSYC 3140 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Twin, Phallic Stage, Genital Stage


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3140
Professor
Joel Goldberg
Study Guide
Midterm

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Abnormal Psychology Test One
Chapters 1-4
Definitions
Chapter One
Psychopathology
Symptoms that cause mental, emotional, or physical pain.
Context
Environment and circumstances in which a behaviour occurs.
Gender Roles
According to Freud, what society considers to be the appropriate behaviours for males and for
females.
Cultural Relativism
View that norms among cultures set the standard for what counts as normal behaviour, which
implies that abnormal behaviour can be defined only relative to these norms; no universal definition
of abnormality is therefore possible; only definitions of abnormality relative to a specific culture are
possible.
Unusualness
Criterion for abnormality that suggest that abnormal behaviours are rare or unexpected.
Discomfort
Criterion for abnormality that suggest that only behaviours that cause a person great distress should
be labelled as abnormal.
Mental Illness
Legal description of an individual who purportedly has a mental illness, which is analogous (in this
view) to having a medical disease.
Maladaptive
In reference to behaviours, causing people who have the behaviours physical or emotional harm,
preventing them from functioning in daily life, or indicating that they have lost touch with reality or
cannot control their thoughts and behaviours (also called dysfunctional).
Biological Theories
Theories of abnormality that focus on biological causes of abnormal behaviours.
Supernatural Theories
Theories that see mental disorders as the result of supernatural forces, such as divine intervention,
curses, demonic possession, and personal sins; mental disorders can be cured through religious
rituals, exorcisms, confessions, or death.
Psychological Theories
Theories that view mental disorders as caused by psychological processes, such as beliefs, thinking
styles, and coping styles.
Trephination
Procedure in which holes were drilled into the skulls of people who displayed abnormal behaviour to
allow evil spirits to depart their bodies; performed in the Stone Age.
Psychic Epidemics
Phenomena in which large numbers of people begin to engage in unusual behaviours that appear to
have a psychological origin.
Moral Treatment
Type of treatment delivered in psychiatric hospitals in which patients are treated with respect respect
and dignity and are encouraged to exercise self-control.
General Paresis
Disease that leads to paralysis, insanity, and eventually death; discovery of the disease helped

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establish a connection between biological diseases and mental disorders.
Mesmerism
Treatment for hysterical patients based on the idea that magnetic fluids in the patients' bodies are
affected by the magnetic forces of other people and objects; the patients' magnetic forces are thought
to be realigned by the practitioner through his or her own magnetic force.
Psychoanalysis
Form of treatment for psychopathology involving alleviating unconscious conflicts driving
psychological symptoms by helping people gain insight into their conflicts and finding ways of
resolving these conflicts.
Behaviourism
Study of the impact of reinforcements and punishments on behaviours.
Cognitions
Thoughts or beliefs.
Self-efficacy beliefs
Beliefs that one can engage in the behaviours necessary to overcome a situation.
Patients' Rights Movement
Movement to ensure that psychiatric patients retain their basic rights and to remove them from
institutions and care for them in the community.
Deinstitutionalization
Movement in which thousands of patients were released from psychiatric institutions; a result of the
patients' rights movement, which was aimed at stopping the dehumanizing of psychiatric patients
and at restoring their basic legal rights.
Clinical Psychologists
People with a PhD in psychology who can conduct psychotherapy but cannot prescribe medications.
Marriage and Family Therapists
People who specialize in helping families, couples, and children overcome problems that are
interfering with their well being.
Clinical Social Workers
People with a master's degree in social work who help people with psychological problems
overcome the social conditions contributing to their problems.
Psychiatric Nurses
People with a degree in nursing who specialize in the treatment of people with severe psychological
problems.
Occupational Therapists
People with a master's degree and skills to help individuals overcome obstacles and barriers caused
by injury, illness, disability, or other problems that affect their productivity and the satisfaction they
derive from every day activities.
Integrationist Approach
Approach to psychopathology that emphasizes how biological, psychological, and social factors
interact and influence each other to produce and maintain mental health problems.
Chapter Two
Theory
A set of assumptions about the likely causes of abnormality and appropriate treatment.
Biological Approach
View that biological factors cause and should be used to treat abnormality.
Psychological Approach
Approach to abnormality that focuses on personality, behaviour, and ways of thinking as possible
causes of abnormality.

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Social Approach
Approach to abnormality that focuses on interpersonal relationships, culture, society, and the
environment as possible causes of abnormality.
Vulnerability-Stress Models
Comprehensive models of the many factors that lead some people to develop a given mental
disorder.
Cerebral Cortex
Part of the brain that regulates complex activities, such as speech and analytical thinking.
Hypothalamus
Component of the brain that regulates eating, drinking, sex, and basic emotions; abnormal
behaviours involving any of these activities may be the result of dysfunction in the hypothalamus.
Limbic System
Part of the brain that relays information from the primitive brain stem about changes in bodily
functions to the cortex, where the information is interpreted.
Neurotransmitters
Biochemicals, released from a sending neuron, that transmits messages to a receiving neuron in the
brain and nervous system.
Synapse
Space between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron into which neurotransmitters are first
released (synaptic gap).
Receptors
Molecules on the membranes of neurons to which neurotransmitters bind.
Reuptake
Process in which a sending neuron reabsorbs some of the neurotransmitter in the synapse, decreasing
the amount left in the synapse.
Degradation
Process in which a receiving neuron releases an enzyme into the synapse, breaking down
neurotransmitters into other biochemicals.
Endocrine System
System of glands that produce many different hormones.
Hormone
Chemical that carries messages throughout the body, potentially affecting a person's moods, levels of
energy, and reactions to stress.
Pituitary
Major endocrine gland that lies partly on the outgrowth of the brain and just below the
hypothalamus; produces the largest number of different hormones of all glands and controls the
secretions of other endocrine glands.
Behaviour Genetics
Study of the processes by which genes affect behaviour and the extent to which personality and
abnormality are genetically inherited.
Polygenic
Combination of many genes, each of which makes a small contribution to an inherited trait.
Predisposition
Tendency to develop a disorder that must interact with other biological, psychological, or
environmental factors for the disorder to develop.
Family History Study
Study of the heritability of a disorder involving identifying people with the disorder and people
without the disorder and then determining the disorder's frequency within each person's family.
Monozygotic (MZ) Twins
Identical
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