PSYC 3140 Study Guide - Final Guide: Bruno Bettelheim, Sickle-Cell Disease, Sickle Cell Trait

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Published on 11 Apr 2013
Department
Course
September 6 2012
- Biological self/evolutionary self
- We act/behave in Darwinian ways
- HIV/AIDS monkeys – possible cannabilism
- “Most HIV researchers agree that HIV evolved at some point from the closely related Simian
immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and that SIV or HIV (post mutation) was transferred from non-
human primates to humans in the recent past (as a type of zoonosis).”
- Major North American study recommended circumcision
o60% AIDS/HIV stopped
oHIP/Humanal Pappillomavirus (women)/Syphillis…
- Text theory: how we justify, script theory, Alfred Adler first talked about personal scripts
oScript theory is a psychological theory which posits that human behaviour largely falls
into patterns called "scripts" because they function analogously to the way a written script
does, by providing a program for action
- Evolutionary Self
oDarwin: we evolved from primates
oDesmond Morris: “we’re the naked apes”, traits; trait theory is big in psychology
oDavid Suzuki: We’re not only naked apes, but also human super species. But we still
have to deal with what animals have to deal with
oIan Tattersall: We’re monkey in the mirror; revolutionary advance; only some animals
can do this; e.g. Binoboa (99.9%), chimp, human
oJared Diamond: wrote the book, The Third Chimpanzee
oStephen Jay Gould: first to popularize Darwin; we don’t have races of people, we’re all
the same tribe; Dawin’s tree with branches
oTheory of mind: awareness of self, awareness of others; “is the ability to attribute mental
states—beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge, etc.—to oneself and others and to
understand that others have beliefs, desires, and intentions that are different from one's
own”
oHuman cannibalism: condition called brain wasting
oThe split and chimpanzees: 5-7 million years ago, they’re closely related, the proteins are
very similar; lineage ; “eve” implied a singe ancestor; 200000 years ago where all
ancestry can be traced in Africa; mdna research; 147 different women in the study are all
like sisters genetically based o mdna; therefore notion of race becomes extinct
oWe’ve about 4% Neanderthal (croatia: Milford Wolpert first to talk about inheriting
Neanderthal genes); 5% of Denisovans (lived in Siberia, no longer exists today); people
in Asia may have up to 5% and 4% in Europeans
oM. Hammer: looked at Y chromosome: were related to a man who lived in Africa 200000
years ago. Mathematical formulas using regression analysis
Lecture 2
- Teratology
oDiseases
oHaplotypes: developing recessive disorders
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“A haplotype in genetics is a combination of alleles (DNA sequences) at adjacent locations (loci) on
the chromosome that are transmitted together. A haplotype may be one locus, several loci, or an entire
chromosome depending on the number of recombination events that have occurred between a given set
of loci.
In a second meaning, haplotype is a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on a single
chromosome of a chromosome pair that arestatistically associated. It is thought that these associations,
and the identification of a few alleles of a haplotype block, can unambiguously identify all other
polymorphic sites in its region. Such information is very valuable for investigating the genetics behind
common diseases, and has been investigated in the human species by the International HapMap Project.
[1] [2]
oAutosomal Dominant Disorders: turner’s XO, Klinefelder’s XXY, XXX, XYY
oRecessive Disorders: Tay Sachs, Sickle cells, Spina bifida
oConsanguous relations: inbreeding
oViruses: V.D., EBV, Measles, Borna, BVD, T. Gondell
- Ontogeny recaps phylogeny: “is a biological hypothesis that in developing from embryo to adult,
animals go through stages resembling or representing successive stages in the evolution of their
remote ancestors”
- David Suzuki: mutations are trials of nature
- Sickle Cell: keep toxins from getting in; Video in Senegal, Africa studying recessive gene, sickle
cell anemia, which 15% to 20% carrying gene of higher, modern drugs can help alleviate
|Sickle cell trait (or sicklemia) describes a condition in which a person has one abnormal allele of the
hemoglobin beta gene (is heterozygous), but does not display the severe symptoms of sickle cell
disease that occur in a person who has two copies of that allele (is homozygous). Those who are
heterozygous for the sickle cell allele produce both normal and abnormal hemoglobin (the two alleles
are co-dominant). Sickle cell disease is a blood disorder in which the body produces an abnormal type of
the oxygen-carrying substance hemoglobin in the red blood cells. Sickling and sickle cell disease also
confer some resistance to malaria parasitization of red blood cells, so that individuals with sickle-cell
trait (heterozygotes) have a selective advantage in some environments.”
- Pale
oAshkenazi; lost tribe
- These groups carry their own mutations
- History follows us
- Spina bifida e.g. King Richard III
oCeltic population
oPeople in NF in breeding, and Punjabis
oPrevented by giving babies folic acid
- Obesity can be determined by how much starvation our ancestors went through. E.g. Native
Canadian girls have higher risk of weight and developing Type II diabetes; Simoans
oFamine Mechanism: “selfish gene”; women who diet produce more fat cells; survival
mechanism
- Autosomal dominant disorder can be caused by one parent
- With consanguous relationships you can get haemophilia; e.g. royal; no platelets to stop blood
from flowing; today there’s medications that help
- Manic depressive disorder: now called bipolar disorder
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- Bruno Bettelheim claimed psycosis was caused by refrigerator mothers
- Different toxins can change fetus brain
oTeratogens
MSG
Lead: retardation, hearing roblems
Alcohol: (FAS, FAE)
Crack and cocaine: e.g. Camden, New Jersey
Valium
Mercury (minimata’s): big fish; e.g. salmon; neurotoxin can cause brain,
Alzheimer’s, e.g. Japan kids eating whale
Manganese
Insecticide and fertiliser (Dr. Elizabeth Saphiro to Mexico: kids not getting
enough vitamins, malnourished, affecting development) e.g. PEI childhood cancer
rates increase due to whats in soil
Ultrasound: too much not good; risking neuro status of fetus; e.g. Sweden:
population of males becong left-handed due to neurological migration; Dyslexia:
too much testosterone – the right side of brain enlarges which causes left
handedness dyslexia: Normal Geschwind: even some forms of autism
“Another line of neurological speculation has followed the initial observations that dyslexic children
have poor or inadequate brain lateralization, especially for language. It is customary to cite the
American neurologist Samuel Orton (Orton, 1925, 1937) as the `founding father' of the now famous
atypical lateralization theory of dyslexia. In particular, one idea proposed by Orton and later
appropriated by Geschwind, was that the lateralization of language functions to the left hemisphere was
delayed in dyslexics, so that the language prerequisites for learning to read could not develop normally.
(For instance, the high incidence of left-handers and the mirror-writing phenomenon were taken as
evidence for abnormal lateralization in these children”
Pasko Rakic’s “migrations”; polluted neuron’s went to the wrong site
FAS: IQ, more fingers, malformed eyes, tongue, cleft, short stature; Native
children at risk; whenever alcohol is misused, more than 3 drinks a day?
FAE: doesn’t show, but may have learning problems
- Perinatal Influences
oAnoxia: loss of oxygen during birth
oVentillation
oForcepts
oLitters/twins
oInfection
oTrauma/abortion
oPoverty/lack of medical service
- IVH/PVH: Periventricular/Intraventricular Hemorrhage in premature babies: brain bleeds
“Some periventricular/intraventricular hemorrhages occur before birth. These usually result from
pregnancy or labor complications. The majority of hemorrhages occur after birth within the first week
of life.”
- Post Natal: IQ, Breast milk vs. cow milk/formula; inoculate baby
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