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Abnormal Psychology Exam Notes

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York University
PSYC 3140
Michael Luther

September 6 2012 - Biological self/evolutionary self - We act/behave in Darwinian ways - HIV/AIDS monkeys – possible cannabilism - “Most HIV researchers agree that HIV evolved at some point from the closely related Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and that SIV or HIV (post mutation) was transferred from non- human primates to humans in the recent past (as a type of zoonosis).” - Major North American study recommended circumcision o 60% AIDS/HIV stopped o HIP/Humanal Pappillomavirus (women)/Syphillis… - Text theory: how we justify, script theory, Alfred Adler first talked about personal scripts o Script theory is a psychological theory which posits that human behaviour largely falls into patterns called "scripts" because they function analogously to the way a written script does, by providing a program for action - Evolutionary Self o Darwin: we evolved from primates o Desmond Morris: “we’re the naked apes”, traits; trait theory is big in psychology o David Suzuki: We’re not only naked apes, but also human super species. But we still have to deal with what animals have to deal with o Ian Tattersall: We’re monkey in the mirror; revolutionary advance; only some animals can do this; e.g. Binoboa (99.9%), chimp, human o Jared Diamond: wrote the book, The Third Chimpanzee o Stephen Jay Gould: first to popularize Darwin; we don’t have races of people, we’re all the same tribe; Dawin’s tree with branches o Theory of mind: awareness of self, awareness of others; “is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge, etc.—to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, and intentions that are different from one's own” o Human cannibalism: condition called brain wasting o The split and chimpanzees: 5-7 million years ago, they’re closely related, the proteins are very similar; lineage ; “eve” implied a singe ancestor; 200000 years ago where all ancestry can be traced in Africa; mdna research; 147 different women in the study are all like sisters genetically based o mdna; therefore notion of race becomes extinct o We’ve about 4% Neanderthal (croatia: Milford Wolpert first to talk about inheriting Neanderthal genes); 5% of Denisovans (lived in Siberia, no longer exists today); people in Asia may have up to 5% and 4% in Europeans o M. Hammer: looked at Y chromosome: were related to a man who lived in Africa 200000 years ago. Mathematical formulas using regression analysis Lecture 2 - Teratology o Diseases o Haplotypes: developing recessive disorders “A haplotype in genetics is a combination of alleles (DNA sequences) at adjacent locations (loci) on the chromosome that are transmitted together. A haplotype may be one locus, several loci, or an entire chromosome depending on the number of recombination events that have occurred between a given set of loci. In a second meaning, haplotype is a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on a single chromosome of a chromosome pair that arestatistically associated. It is thought that these associations, and the identification of a few alleles of a haplotype block, can unambiguously identify all other polymorphic sites in its region. Such information is very valuable for investigating the genetics behind common diseases, and has been investigated in the human species by the International HapMap Project. [1][2]” o Autosomal Dominant Disorders: turner’s XO, Klinefelder’s XXY, XXX, XYY o Recessive Disorders: Tay Sachs, Sickle cells, Spina bifida o Consanguous relations: inbreeding o Viruses: V.D., EBV, Measles, Borna, BVD, T. Gondell - Ontogeny recaps phylogeny: “is a biological hypothesis that in developing from embryo to adult, animals go through stages resembling or representing successive stages in the evolution of their remote ancestors” - David Suzuki: mutations are trials of nature - Sickle Cell: keep toxins from getting in; Video in Senegal, Africa studying recessive gene, sickle cell anemia, which 15% to 20% carrying gene of higher, modern drugs can help alleviate |Sickle cell trait (or sicklemia) describes a condition in which a person has one abnormal allele of the hemoglobin beta gene (is heterozygous), but does not display the severe symptoms of sickle cell disease that occur in a person who has two copies of that allele (is homozygous). Those who are heterozygous for the sickle cell allele produce both normal and abnormal hemoglobin (the two alleles are co-dominant). Sickle cell disease is a blood disorder in which the body produces an abnormal type of the oxygen-carrying substance hemoglobin in the red blood cells. Sickling and sickle cell disease also confer some resistance to malaria parasitization of red blood cells, so that individuals with sickle-cell trait (heterozygotes) have a selective advantage in some environments.” - Pale o Ashkenazi; lost tribe - These groups carry their own mutations - History follows us - Spina bifida e.g. King Richard III o Celtic population o People in NF in breeding, and Punjabis o Prevented by giving babies folic acid - Obesity can be determined by how much starvation our ancestors went through. E.g. Native Canadian girls have higher risk of weight and developing Type II diabetes; Simoans o Famine Mechanism: “selfish gene”; women who diet produce more fat cells; survival mechanism - Autosomal dominant disorder can be caused by one parent - With consanguous relationships you can get haemophilia; e.g. royal; no platelets to stop blood from flowing; today there’s medications that help - Manic depressive disorder: now called bipolar disorder - Bruno Bettelheim claimed psycosis was caused by refrigerator mothers - Different toxins can change fetus brain o Teratogens  MSG  Lead: retardation, hearing roblems  Alcohol: (FAS, FAE)  Crack and cocaine: e.g. Camden, New Jersey  Valium  Mercury (minimata’s): big fish; e.g. salmon; neurotoxin can cause brain, Alzheimer’s, e.g. Japan kids eating whale  Manganese  Insecticide and fertiliser (Dr. Elizabeth Saphiro to Mexico: kids not getting enough vitamins, malnourished, affecting development) e.g. PEI childhood cancer rates increase due to whats in soil  Ultrasound: too much not good; risking neuro status of fetus; e.g. Sweden: population of males becong left-handed due to neurological migration; Dyslexia: too much testosterone – the right side of brain enlarges which causes left handedness dyslexia: Normal Geschwind: even some forms of autism “Another line of neurological speculation has followed the initial observations that dyslexic children have poor or inadequate brain lateralization, especially for language. It is customary to cite the American neurologist Samuel Orton (Orton, 1925, 1937) as the `founding father' of the now famous atypical lateralization theory of dyslexia. In particular, one idea proposed by Orton and later appropriated by Geschwind, was that the lateralization of language functions to the left hemisphere was delayed in dyslexics, so that the language prerequisites for learning to read could not develop normally. (For instance, the high incidence of left-handers and the mirror-writing phenomenon were taken as evidence for abnormal lateralization in these children”  Pasko Rakic’s “migrations”; polluted neuron’s went to the wrong site  FAS: IQ, more fingers, malformed eyes, tongue, cleft, short stature; Native children at risk; whenever alcohol is misused, more than 3 drinks a day?  FAE: doesn’t show, but may have learning problems - Perinatal Influences o Anoxia: loss of oxygen during birth o Ventillation o Forcepts o Litters/twins o Infection o Trauma/abortion o Poverty/lack of medical service - IVH/PVH: Periventricular/Intraventricular Hemorrhage in premature babies: brain bleeds “Some periventricular/intraventricular hemorrhages occur before birth. These usually result from pregnancy or labor complications. The majority of hemorrhages occur after birth within the first week of life.” - Post Natal: IQ, Breast milk vs. cow milk/formula; inoculate baby September 20, 2012 The family - Isms: ideology, communism, socialism: creates zombies - Mausim: China - Stalinism: Russia - E.O. Wilson (father of psychobiology) book on “Altruism” standing up for the group, even bugs can e altruistic e.g. Mahatma Gandhi; he said we can learn this; form of naturalistic psychology - C. Murray “Coming apart” why people fail. White America is splitting: successful vs. dropouts, drug abuse, etc. “Charles Murray, scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, argues that white America's class divide has grown to a level that has isolated the upper class and created a separation that may foment class warfare amongst an ever-growing lower class.” - Kennet Iswarank: prof’s guru, down on isms - Bruno Bettelheim: talked about how guard in concentration camps gave up their personhood o Freud’s disciple o Blamed schizo on moms o Was placed in Dhaka concentration camp o Psychoanalystic o Saw lot of people turning catatonic and took this to be autism/schizo, which was caused by schizophrenic moms - Greenspan helped to setup program at York U, but later in life started blaming mom’s again. Along with Shanker. - Diana Baumrind: research on parenting styles; authoritarian is totalitarianism (don’t think for your self, the goerment does it for you); in Canada, authoritarianism by Church towards Natives in residential schools; Mount Cashal in Newfoundland where Christian Brothers abused kids at this school; o Authoritarian: do as I say, not as I do; script theory; followed the bible o Authoritative parenting gets the most out of kids; they wantto know what the kids are doing. K. Iswarank would say this is winthin a nuclear family; family are together; traditional American values; o Permissive/laissez-faire parenting: I’ll do my own thing, you do your own thing o Nonconformist parenting: don’t listed to the teacher; us vs. them mentality; we know best - 50% Native drop out from high school - R. Feuerstein worked with kids who had been in concentration camps; nominated for Nobel Prize; most famous developmental child psychologist alive today; from Romania. “Reuven Feuerstein (Hebrew: ןייטשריופ ןבואר) (born August 21, 1921 in Botoşani, Romania) is an Israeli clinical, developmental, and cognitive psychologist, renowned for his theory of intelligence which states “it is not ‘fixed’, but rather modifiable”. The idea behind this theory is that intelligence can be modified through mediated interventions.” - Eric fromm talked about the most cultured nation gave up their freedom due to abusive childhood e.g. Germany - Psychopaths: “slaves of their childhood” - Stalin: goolags: camps where you were worked to death - Nikolas Chowchesko: Romania; Stalinist; unwanted babies o Dr. Nelson Found that kids less than 2 years in institution may be able to recover; stress hormones take theiry tol on children who were there for more - Mauism in China: mercantilism: now, strict capitalism, but opportunities to make lots of money September 27, 2012 - Intra psychic self: right into the mind (sub-conscious) e.g. nightmare analysis: Jung, psychoanalysis, Freud - Archetype: e.g. Jungian Archetype - J. Goebbels: Nazi German propaganda minister whom Jung wrote speeches for - David Bakan: read thorugh all of Freud’s letters; neurologist; first to discover cerebral palsy acquired in womb; but he got into kind of spiritualism; pretended he didn’t follow his own religion, he felt he was dwelling into mysticism; even took dream interpretation; Freud loved to identify (defence mechanism); identified with Hannibal, who attacked Rome with elephans and African armies; Freud hated Rome, Vatican and authoritarianism o Freud and the Jewish mystical tradition o Kabbala and Zohar o Zionism o Hannibal o Moses and monotheism: book by Freud o Future of Illusion: book by Freud, where he denied God, but he wasn’t an atheist o Totem and Taboo: by Freud, someone who doesn’t accept the world order. See it for what it is o Dreams and symbols - Freud’s defence mechanism o Denial o Repression o Projection o Identification o Reaction formation: over react o Dissembling: hiding something o Atonement/undoing: make up for something - Dominant theories now: o Big 5, 5FT = Neurosis - Old trait vs. state theory - Freud’s processes o Psychic determinism vs. altruism: Zimbardo tried to say not responsible for actions but lost o Unconscious o Displacemtn o Transference o Fixation: obsessed o Regression o Law of opposites: fall in love with abuser, battered wife syndrome, Stockholm syndrome - Bettelheim: first to use the word zombies in concentration camps - Peter Singer: bioethicist: too much faith in reason; however during most times reason goes out the window and Freud knew this. - Freud: Energy/Forces o Eros/Life o Thanatos/death o Libido/sex - Carl Jung: Swiss, German protestant; loved women; believed in power of tribes/race; see what he wants to see; Eurocentric view; Nazi, master race o Aryan Master race o Nazi-ism o The blond beast: Jung got this from Nietzchi; he believed in this; German and Austrians just followed their personality o Wotan o Valkeries (Wagnerian): his harem of women were called this o Archetypes o Collective unconscious - Bettleheim: Freudian; believes in psychoanalysis; Pres. of U.S. takes him out of the concentration camps; provided amazing records due to his 1 year in there; Autistic, schizophrenic were created due to cold abusive - Viktor Emil Frankl: altruism; we make choices based on … Good vs. Evil, not a Freudian; Holocaust survivor; “After enduring the suffering in these camps, Frankl validated his hallmark conclusion that even in the most absurd, painful and dehumanized situation, life has potential meaning and that therefore even suffering is meaningful.” - Ideas o Symbols/Mandala’s o Free association o Animus/anima: men have within them women and vice versa; Freudian: penis envy, Oedipus complex o Dream interpretation: Jung: each culture has its own dreams ; believed schizophrenics were in touch with their deeper selves especially their culture o History and myths October 4 2012 Psychosis: Autism and Schizophrenia - Psychosis: losing touch with reality, schizo, autistic, bipolar, drug abuse o Defence mechanism breaking down - Personality disorder: not psychosis, rigid defence mechanism being overused; e.g. Alfred Adler talked about fictions in your head - Pervasive Developmental Disorder (P.D.D) o Autism o Rett’s Disorder o Childhood Disintegrative Disorder o Asperger’s Syndrome o Not otherwise specified o Not Childhood Schizophrenia - Mirror neurons: being able to reciprocate, e.g. CHAT test, being able to pint - Bruno Bettelheim: confused schizophrenia and autism o Talked about feeling in himself and others psychotic reactions in the camp o Sees normal people turning psychotic and theory that stress and abuse that causes psychosis and autism o Theory is coming back again - Symptoms of Psychosis o Type 1 positive o Type 2 negative o Schneiderian first rank (thought broadcasting, delusions, hallucinations, agitations, voices, etc.) o Jerusalem and Paris syndromes: tourist’s disorder - Arendt: talked about totalarianism causing zombies; e.g. indoctrination, propaganda, authoritarian parenting - LSD: paranoid schizo o CIA gave to patients to see how it affects brain chemistry\releases dopamine, so does meth and pot o Dopamine Hypothesis: strong biocase for the new forms of drug to produce the brain of teenagers e.g. marijuana induced schizo., IQ lower, cancer of testes o David Suzuki: can’t produce on its own, background factors, e.g. genetics, childhood trauma, where you live - Processes o Type 1  Dopamine Hypothesis, Seemans, P., Montreal psycho pharmacologist  Corpus callosum agenesis  Frontal lobe impairment  Left temporal lobe impairment  Drug induced o Type 2:  Enlarged ventricles  Decreased brain volume  Viral wasting (syphilis..)  Plaques and tangles (Alzheimer’s)  Could be a disease process which may eat at the ventricles of the brain which causes the brain to get bigger or even shrinkage of brain. -
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