Motivation Notes November 12,
Chapter 5 Textbook
Pavlovian classical conditioning
4. Experimental Neurosis:
Difficult discrimination training led to loss of previous establishes conditioned responses
(CRS) and the inability to acquire ne conditioned responses.
Inability to acquire new habits and get rid of the old ones (regression, esp under
Always have to keep practicing new habits
• Difficult conditioning tasks become aversive ad lead to disruption in overall
“personality” of the animal hence, experimental neurosis.
II. Classical conditioning is associated with the acquisition of motivational states.
Watson and Rayner’s (1920) study of Little Albert revealed that a 9 to 11 month old child
could form a conditioned emotional reaction to previously neutral stimuli.
As Woodworth pointed out: The drive state has direction leading to approach, and in
Little Albert’s case, avoidance of previously neutral stimuli.
Motivated behaviours may be eliminated through conditioning.
A. Counterconditioning: Rachlin (1976) showed that pairing the aversive CS with
a strongly positive UCS leads to CS to elicit new, positive responses.
B. Systematic desensitization: Wolpe (1958) showed that by learning a relaxation
response, this positive response may be attached to stimuli which previously
elicited negative CRs.
C. Interoceptive conditioning: The Conditioned Stimulus, UnCS, or both may be applied to internal organs. In interoextroceptive conditioning the CS is
applied internally (cool water to stomach) and the application of the UCS (food)
is applied externally. The USC – food – elicits salivation, and after several
pairings of CS and UCS, the CS (internally applied water) leads to salivary
response, a CR, in the absence of the UCS.
D. Extero Interoceptive conditioning: Patients with urinary problems have an
inflatable balloon inserted into the bladder – UCS. The CS is a dial with readings
indicating how much air is inflated into the balloon causing the bladder distention.
The “feeling” or urination is the response that occurs to a bladder being distended.
After several pairings of dial readings (CS) with balloon inflation (UCS), the sight
of the dial reading alone (CS), without the UCS as enough to lead to the report of
“feeling” to urinate. Thus, Exterointeroceptive conditioning.
E. Implications of interoceptive conditioning:
1. Unaware that such conditioning is taking place. Some of our behaviours are
unconsciously acquired and expressed.
2. Since bodily changes occurs by virtue of cycles and rhythms, certain external and
internal stimuli will be associated with these changes and these stimuli will act as
“cues” to elicit certain reactions.
3. Interoceptive conditioning is more resistant to extinction that ordinary classical
4. Psychosomatic considerations enter
5. Learned taste aversions: Garcia’s studies of how certain stimulusresonse
associations are more readily learned (as in prepared) than others. Thus, paring
light and sound with water followed by shock as the organism drinks leads to an
aversion to drinking the water then CS – light and sound – are again presented.
The CS (light plus sound) and the USC shock lead to a conditioned learned
On the other hand, the CS (light plus sound) and xrays leading to illness did not
lead to a conditioned learned aversion. The external CS and an internal illness
following the drinking of the water did no lead to an association of CS, water
drinking, with illness. There was no avoidance od water when the CS was again
Rats given “tasty water” as a CS and this was followed by illness did acquire a
conditioned aversion. When presented with tasty water as a CS they refused to
Thus, • Tastes and illness are associates quickly.
• Sights and sounds and shock are associated qui