Study Guides (248,413)
Canada (121,518)
York University (10,209)
Psychology (1,203)
PSYC 3170 (42)


25 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 3170
Gerry Goldberg

LECTURE 1 What is health? - Health relates to biological stuff, psychological stuff, and social stuff - Well-being = all those factors put together - Bio-psycho-social model – varies from culture to culture o There are places in which the water is not so clean, which kills lots of children and causes lots of people to have intestinal worms - Status quo = accepted as it is; it is the nature for half of children age 8 to die - Ex: Story of Mad Hatter from Alice in Wonderland o People making hats started being weird; it was accepted o People who made hats, inhaled mercury fumes and were getting mercury poisoning o They would mix a sticky compound to stick the lining into the hat; the sticky stuff was mercury o Dip their thumb into the compound containing mercury, and lick it; and stick it in again - Ex: underground miners o Miners suffer from lung disease: black lungs, lung cancer - Shake the status quo, and say that’s not good enough Evolution of Activism - Who says, “its not good enough”? where’s the origin? - We have an active role, as individual/community, it is not good enough, we want better - Union o Represented workers when times were not good o Collected union dues to get better working conditions for the workers o Used the money to do research to help understand how working might cause harms - Consumerism o Quality of life in general o Food additives, cigarettes, pyjamas bought for children (fire spreads very quickly) - Court awards o Some community have gotten huge awards for polluting the water/land o The giant sums of money, compensate people who got sick - Technology o Cant we invent safer cars? - Public and workforce changes o People are getting more educated, so they want better o People who watch the news - “Code of Hammurabi” = the code said “if you build a house and collapses and kills someone’s son, we get to kill you” - Workers compensation = employers pay a premium to insure safety of employees o Employees get hurt, get the compensation, promise not to sue the employers o The premium would increase after an employee get hurt and receive compensation o Since employers don’t want to increase premium, they make the working condition safer - Inflation/increased costs o In US with no health plan - Medical research o How cancer can be caused by exposure of different source - Commercialized medicine - Costs to society and individuals You Are The Champion - 15-20% doctors diagnose illness wrong Agents of Health Activism – they tell us to watch out What We DO and Health - Our behaviour affects out health - How we feel affects what we do - Death from heart disease has increased = diet, exercise - What we do impacts out health Environmental and occupational medicine - What people do for living; how they spend their time - Many problems came from inhaling hazardous gas, sprain injuries, bending over improperly - When you give a medical examination, one question is to ask: what is your occupation? - TLVs = determine if this is safe or not; above or below the threshold values o Based on science (how much of this can we tolerate) o Very dependent upon economics, politics o Nothing is 100% pure, what we find acceptable or not, will change within scientific facts, and also economic facts (can we afford having water absolutely puer?) What we do or THINK and health - Our thoughts can impact our health Norman Cousins - He was a journalist, went away one year and came back feeling very bad in summer 1964 - Connective tissue gets tighter and tighter - Doctor told him, there’s room for optimism. 1/500 chance of surviving - 4 different technicians came in and took 4 samples of blood - A hospital was no place for anyone who is seriously ill, so he got out of there - Took large doses of vitamin C; got comedy shows and laughed a lot - Objective measure of his disease = he got better - His attitude, take charge, optimism can help you out Placebo Effects - People get better because of the treatment, even though the treatment does not have any active ingredient - Guy with tumour injected with salt water, healed. But read research paper that the medicine had no use. His condition got worse again - The power of your thoughts/beliefs/attitudes - No scientific proof that positive attitude fights cancer The Doctor is Within - You can judge your health better than your doctor The Importance of Scientific Method Cultural Truisms and Common Sense - Cultural truism = brush your teeth before you go to sleep, after you sleep o We accept as common sense o You do this, you will get a cold, or not o Lots of different opinion, all seems sooo correct The Rise of Health Psychology: Methodological Contributions Prospective Designs (Longitudinal) - What medicine/therapy/condition leads to good health - Watch them over decades and grow - Very expensive and hard to do Retrospective Research - Most of research in textbook - Look back; group of people with cancer, group of people with no cancer - How they lived their lives, their race, what things happened - Correlational research LECTURE 2 - D 3 B 7  3 D 6 D - D = vitamins 3 = flu - All letters should have equal chance of being selected - D 3 = confirmation bias (once we have something in our head, we show it it’s true) - Scientific method = be conscious of this confirmation bias Attribution Process - Attribute the cause of a heart attack to something - Ask questions: exercise? Lifestyle? Behaviour? What led to the heart attack? - Find the order that led to heart attack - Health enhancing thoughts vs health defeating attributions Examples Fundamental Attribution Error - We tend to be biased in not giving the environment or the situation credit for influencing our behaviour - We overestimate that internal characteristics impact how we feel/what we do - We tend to discount the impact of the environment - Getting insensitive of how the environment/culture/social/psychological factors plays a role in our health Actor-Observer Bias - We discount much of on others than to ourselves - More conscious of situational factors to myself, than others Defensive Attribution - Blame the victim Self-serving Bias - Good news is something about me, bad news is about the situation - We attribute success to ourselves Discounting - Something negative about the other person, we use that to attribute why they are behaving that way - Attribute that behaviour to that negative motive in the doctor o Ex: don’t use the medicine because the doctor’s motive is to make money out of it Augmentation - Attribute his behaviour to higher motives - Follow this doctor’s advice and believes what he gives is the best Am I Really Sick? - Skelton: 3 factors that lead us to decide whether we are sick - Attend to bodily sensations - Interpret sensations in the context of illness o Conscious and aware of thirst is a sign of diabetes, then we will get concern for constancy of thirst - Negative mood Information and Self-Regulatory Theory - Applying attribution process - Information in our head gets to decide what we do to look after ourselves - Information regulates how we behave - Culture: hands us some schemas o Ex: if you experience pain, suck it up - Amount of information: access to information in the Internet o Medical students disease - Social comparison Attribution Therapies James-Lange Theory - What determines how you feel: is based on biological state - There is a biological state for each feeling Cannon-Bard Theory - Increased level of adrenaline in the system that is associated with fear - Found the anger (fight response) has high level of adrenaline - Supports the James-Lange theory - Explains major emotions: fight/flight, does not example joyful Two-Factor Theory of Emotion (by Schachter and Singer) - Confederate for half of the population perceived as happy; another confederate perceived as sad - Epinephrine = feel more alert, perspire more, heart goes faster - When people didnt know the impact of the drug (given the placebo), they just felt the way they did (no change) - Subjects with epinephrine with happy confederate: felt positive - When theres no physiological change in their body, there’s no way to see whether there are changes - When given epinephrine, they felt different o They noticed the positive side of epinephrine, interpreted it as good stuff o Impacted by situational factors - When people told accurate info about epinephrine, subjects responded whatever the doctors said o The happy/anxious confederate had no impact on them Autonomic arousal Cognitive interpretation of that arousal - What do you attribute to cause that arousal Ovid - Wrote about how to make women fall in love with you Misattribution and the Exacerbation Model Ross, Rodin, and Zimbardo - Subjects worked on puzzles that were hard/impossible to do - All told that they are studying loud noise on puzzle solving - ½ people told noise causes arousal (geared up); ½ people told noise makes you drowsy (weary/tired) - 1 puzzle was done and measure how long you’ve worked on it - 1 puzzle if done, you would win some money - 1 puzzle, need to avoid severe electric shocks - See how long the people will work on the puzzle under the belief that noise causes arousal/drowsy - Case 1: Monetary award – both group worked equally long (measured in minutes) - Case 2: Avoid getting shocked – noise causes you sleepy group spent more time working on the puzzle o If told noise causes you tired, they work harder to get rid of weary  You feel awful too; that feeling of arousal is completely based on the shock  Since they want to avoid that feeling of shock, they work harder to complete the puzzle o If told noise causes you arousal, have that same miserable feeling, it’s because of the noise and the shock that made them miserable; tricked that noise causes anxiety instead of shock  Attribute uncomfortable feeling to the noise to avoid getting the shock  Didn’t think all their anxiety is attributed to the noise; part of that anxiety is associated with the shock as well Storms and Nisbett - Previous study: convince the noise causes bad feelings - Help study having trouble falling asleep (insomniacs) o Lie in bad and make attributions of not being able to fall asleep o Believed that these negative attributions they make them aroused and not able to fall asleep o Thoughts exacerbating the situation - Trick people into making attributions that would not cause them aggravations - Have subjects 1/3 groups – told doing study of dreams, and effects of dreams (all pills had no active ingredient) o Group 1: arousal pill – told pill had problem, keeps you awake. Told the pills’ fault if you can’t fall asleep o Group 2: sedation pill – this pill makes you sleepy ; this pill helped you fall asleep o Group 3: asked them how long it took them to fall asleep - Group 3: still not falling asleep sooner o The sedation did not “really work” on them, so they had more negative thoughts - Group 1: fall asleep sooner o They cant fall asleep, because it was the pill. Not about negative thoughts, so they fell asleep sooner Veridical Reattribution Lowery, Denney, and Storms - Taught subjects the process of sleep - Less threatening than having bad negative thoughts - Making more accurate attributions Case Studies - A homosexual guy very upset and so is his wife - After people experience a horrible event, feel very awful and affect you in very dramatic ways o They attribute the awful feelings to characteristics of themselves o Help them reattribute their horrible feeling – tell them they are having normal feelings Veridical Reattribution and Drug Psychosis - Became psychotic after taking LSD - Becker: see comparisons with marijuana; look at historical data o Looked at how many admissions there were in hospitals that were called drug psychosis (1900-1968) o Looked at data he had, and how many people used marijuana from 1900-present  2 variables: hospital admission due to drug psychosis, # people using marijuana o Rates were higher in beginning of century, as the year progress, the # admission to hospital dropped o In early 1900s – marijuana use was not very high; as years progress, more people use marijuana (but yet # of people admission in hospital dropped) The Social Basis for the Drug-Induced Experience - If drug taken by novice, take it for new experience – will have different perception, poor judgments o Older culture: drug causes insanity – pushes more adrenaline in the body, think they are going crazy  Going to hospital reinforces the idea that marijuana makes you crazy  Crystallizes the underlying disorder; makes the problem to a real problem  Makes you have panic attack, more adrenaline  Psychotic episode happens = higher level of anxiety (drawn on by attributions people make) o Drug culture: talks about it, understand nature of the drug  Normalizes the experience to an abnormal traumatic event  Make attributions that it is not me who is going crazy, it is the drug  Being accurate and truthful about making these attributions, help calm down them Veridical Reattribution and Sex Problems History of Sex Research - People evaluate you as a person on what you are doing - We make attribution about the person - People take it to heart, and judge it relative to the norm nd - No real research done, until after 2 world war Kinsey Reports - Interviewed lots of people about what they did sexually on a daily basis o 1948: Almost every male masturbates o 1953: female report of their sexual activities Masters and Johnson - Studied people having sex - Clinical interviews, had observations, took physiological measures - Problems people experienced had nothing to do with biological/physiological/psychological problems o Had lots to do with cultural learning – taught by culture ideas about sex that interfere their joy of sex o Make correct veridical reattribution Myths and Fallacies Myths of Males’ Sexual Wisdom - Our culture has misconception that men genetically by divine guidance, able to know exactly what women want sexually and when they want it - This interferes sexual communication The search for Aphrodisiacs - Aphrodisiacs = something that turns you on sexually Penis size - No need a large penis to stimulate Masturbation - Thought of as causing blindness - 1959: ½ medical schools in 3 universities believe it causes insanity - 20% professors think masturbation causes mental illness o Thought this because saw 100% mental patients masturbate Two Types of Orgasm in Women - Clitoral orgasm - Vaginal orgasm – only fully developed women would experience this Single versus Multiple Orgasm - Orgasm and ejaculation is not the same thing Focus on orgasm - Measuring who you are based on orgasm messes up/objectifies sex Myth of the identify of male/female sexual urges - Age 17: 100% male 35% female experienced orgasm - 80-95% male 20-35% female admitted masturbation - Saw men as the standards; Sex as a Barometer of a good relationship - They are different things Sex and old age Masters and Johnson view of the Sex Response - 1) Excitement stage o Can be seconds, minutes, hours - 2) Plateau stage o Built up of fluids - 3) Orgasm stage o Contractions; physiological climax of sexual response - 4) Resolution stage LECTURE 3 Behavioural Therapy for Sexual Problems - Socio-cultural deprivation and ignorance of sexual physiology o Not getting enough information about the topic o Given psycho-education (myths and fallacies) - Systematic desensitisation o When people have trouble doing something, get them to feel comfortable o Ask them to refrain from sexual activities other than the prescribed ones o Start with something couples feel comfortable with o Focus on enjoying of the prescribed activity Modern Sex Education - Sex = not something we do, but something that we are - Children get sex ed from media, not from parents - Should teach it early starting at age 5 - Self-awareness o Teach values of sharing, cooperating, respecting others’ rights/privacy o Control emotions - Physiology o Teach proper terms of body parts - Reproductive - Family Attitudes - An idea we have about human, that we think is kind of useful - General and enduring positive/negative feeling about something Beliefs - Reserve for information that a person has for things - That information in our head can be factual or can be personal opinion - Bunch of beliefs form our attitudes Why study attitudes? - Help get summary of overall beliefs – helpful to predict their behaviour - Know where people stand 8 Approaches to Attitude Formation and Change - 8 approach (ELM) = theory that embraces the preceding 7 theories 8) Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) - Step 1: Persuasive Appeal o a. Central route (the route of intellectual ideas)  Audience: ability to analyze and motivated to do so  Processing: put cognitive energy (elaboration) – come up on their own thoughts  Persuasion: evoke enduring agreement; strong arguments you create yourself, the thoughts you have not the persuasive appeal that change you (thoughts of agreement with speaker/opposite) o b. Peripheral Route (not the ideas that people have)  Audience: not the correct audience to persuade (asking students to invest in RRSP)  Processing: use peripheral cues (other cues other than cues related to persuasion)  Persuasion: what is influencing their decision is based on their thoughts 1) Conditioning and Modelling Approaches Classical conditioning: Ex: antibuse (drug took on daily basis) to fix alcoholics – if you drink alcohol, you will get awfully sick Operant conditioning: Behaviour modification: reward/punishment Modelling: Conform to groups or do what the norm is doing 2) Message Learning Approach - Persuasive message: understandable? If no, then no attitude change - Attention to message - Comprehension of message - Acceptance of message - Communicator: Who says? Where is the info coming from? Credible? Trustworthy? o Communicator factors = trust - Message content: what? Emotional/reason argument? o Message factor = fear  People brush teeth with high fear has more plaques  Need to use fear appropriately to influence people  People brush teeth with low-moderate fear has less plaques - Channel: how messages are framed o Channel factor = positive / negative frame o Depends on what you are trying to influence = detection behaviours / prevention behaviours  Detection behaviours = negatively framed messages are more effective (ex: breast, skin)  Prevention behaviours = positively framed messages/combo of both (ex: use sunscreen) o Personal vs media - Audience: o What motivates them? o We need to tailor our message to the audience Speaker’s position contrary to Speaker’s position not contrary the audience to the audience Audience with well articulated  Repeat your points over and attitude or scheme over again Audience with poorly  Give them more detailed  articulated attitude or scheme strategies/reasons Transtheoretical Model - 1) Pre-contemplation Stage = not aware there is a problem (ex: not getting enough exercise or sleep) o Insensitive that the problem is dangerous to their health o Underestimate the benefit of change - 2) Contemplation stage = out of the ignorance is bliss stage; give them social support - 3) Maintenance = doing the appropriate behaviour; study the root of the problem and alternatives o Figure out alternatives to deal with the problem - 4) Termination = when you are successful 3) Judgmental Approaches - Based on past experiences or what you’ve seen before (an anchor) or self perception Sherif’s Latitude of Acceptance: The Perspective Approach - Within latitude of acceptance: assimilated their ideas to my ideas - Within latitude of rejection: others’ idea is contrast to own point of view - Ego involvement = how much time/energy you put into your position/idea/attitude o If put lots of time involved, latitude of acceptance is narrower Hedonic Adaptation - Trying to pick up your respect to make yourself feel better by seeing the good around you - Help protect psychological health during chronic diseases - Mental scale people use to judge how you are feeling shifts, so their neutral point for comparison change 6) Combinatory Approaches - When put ideas together, they don’t add the positive attributes. They take the average of the attributes - Primitive - Core: religion beliefs - Authority: professionals - Peripheral: fashion 7) Self-Persuasion Approaches - The ideas trigger belief, which influence your behaviour - The more you think/argue your idea, the more polarized/extreme your beliefs become 4) Motivational Approaches - Blame the victim - Cognitive dissonance = when we have cognitions and ideas in our head, the 2 cognitions can have relationship to each other… o Irrelevant: the 2 ideas have nothing to do with one another o Consonant: ex: raining in Toronto, and I am standing outside Toronto and I am getting wet o Dissonant: ex: raining in Toronto, and I am standing outside Toronto and I am not getting wet  Irritating to hear something that doesn’t follow with what you just heard  We bolster to make it sensible – thinking thoughts that make sense  This only works in free choice situation - Bolstering o Get people to do behaviours with minimum external reward (less of a contrast – ex: Mercedes/cookies) LECTURE 4 Attitudes Towards Persons With Disabilities - Left handed is not a disability, but is an impairment, like a handicap (scissors made for lefty) - Only 1 function kidney (damaged from cancer etc.) – physical thing that leads to disability - Disability = condition of impairment (physical/mental) that has obje
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 3170

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.