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PSYC 3170 (HEALTH PSYC) - ALL LECTURE NOTES, EXAM OUTLINE/INFO, GRAPHS, DEFINITIONS

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3170
Professor
Gerry Goldberg
Semester
Winter

Description
LECTURE 1 What is health? - Health relates to biological stuff, psychological stuff, and social stuff - Well-being = all those factors put together - Bio-psycho-social model – varies from culture to culture o There are places in which the water is not so clean, which kills lots of children and causes lots of people to have intestinal worms - Status quo = accepted as it is; it is the nature for half of children age 8 to die - Ex: Story of Mad Hatter from Alice in Wonderland o People making hats started being weird; it was accepted o People who made hats, inhaled mercury fumes and were getting mercury poisoning o They would mix a sticky compound to stick the lining into the hat; the sticky stuff was mercury o Dip their thumb into the compound containing mercury, and lick it; and stick it in again - Ex: underground miners o Miners suffer from lung disease: black lungs, lung cancer - Shake the status quo, and say that’s not good enough Evolution of Activism - Who says, “its not good enough”? where’s the origin? - We have an active role, as individual/community, it is not good enough, we want better - Union o Represented workers when times were not good o Collected union dues to get better working conditions for the workers o Used the money to do research to help understand how working might cause harms - Consumerism o Quality of life in general o Food additives, cigarettes, pyjamas bought for children (fire spreads very quickly) - Court awards o Some community have gotten huge awards for polluting the water/land o The giant sums of money, compensate people who got sick - Technology o Cant we invent safer cars? - Public and workforce changes o People are getting more educated, so they want better o People who watch the news - “Code of Hammurabi” = the code said “if you build a house and collapses and kills someone’s son, we get to kill you” - Workers compensation = employers pay a premium to insure safety of employees o Employees get hurt, get the compensation, promise not to sue the employers o The premium would increase after an employee get hurt and receive compensation o Since employers don’t want to increase premium, they make the working condition safer - Inflation/increased costs o In US with no health plan - Medical research o How cancer can be caused by exposure of different source - Commercialized medicine - Costs to society and individuals You Are The Champion - 15-20% doctors diagnose illness wrong Agents of Health Activism – they tell us to watch out What We DO and Health - Our behaviour affects out health - How we feel affects what we do - Death from heart disease has increased = diet, exercise - What we do impacts out health Environmental and occupational medicine - What people do for living; how they spend their time - Many problems came from inhaling hazardous gas, sprain injuries, bending over improperly - When you give a medical examination, one question is to ask: what is your occupation? - TLVs = determine if this is safe or not; above or below the threshold values o Based on science (how much of this can we tolerate) o Very dependent upon economics, politics o Nothing is 100% pure, what we find acceptable or not, will change within scientific facts, and also economic facts (can we afford having water absolutely puer?) What we do or THINK and health - Our thoughts can impact our health Norman Cousins - He was a journalist, went away one year and came back feeling very bad in summer 1964 - Connective tissue gets tighter and tighter - Doctor told him, there’s room for optimism. 1/500 chance of surviving - 4 different technicians came in and took 4 samples of blood - A hospital was no place for anyone who is seriously ill, so he got out of there - Took large doses of vitamin C; got comedy shows and laughed a lot - Objective measure of his disease = he got better - His attitude, take charge, optimism can help you out Placebo Effects - People get better because of the treatment, even though the treatment does not have any active ingredient - Guy with tumour injected with salt water, healed. But read research paper that the medicine had no use. His condition got worse again - The power of your thoughts/beliefs/attitudes - No scientific proof that positive attitude fights cancer The Doctor is Within - You can judge your health better than your doctor The Importance of Scientific Method Cultural Truisms and Common Sense - Cultural truism = brush your teeth before you go to sleep, after you sleep o We accept as common sense o You do this, you will get a cold, or not o Lots of different opinion, all seems sooo correct The Rise of Health Psychology: Methodological Contributions Prospective Designs (Longitudinal) - What medicine/therapy/condition leads to good health - Watch them over decades and grow - Very expensive and hard to do Retrospective Research - Most of research in textbook - Look back; group of people with cancer, group of people with no cancer - How they lived their lives, their race, what things happened - Correlational research LECTURE 2 - D 3 B 7  3 D 6 D - D = vitamins 3 = flu - All letters should have equal chance of being selected - D 3 = confirmation bias (once we have something in our head, we show it it’s true) - Scientific method = be conscious of this confirmation bias Attribution Process - Attribute the cause of a heart attack to something - Ask questions: exercise? Lifestyle? Behaviour? What led to the heart attack? - Find the order that led to heart attack - Health enhancing thoughts vs health defeating attributions Examples Fundamental Attribution Error - We tend to be biased in not giving the environment or the situation credit for influencing our behaviour - We overestimate that internal characteristics impact how we feel/what we do - We tend to discount the impact of the environment - Getting insensitive of how the environment/culture/social/psychological factors plays a role in our health Actor-Observer Bias - We discount much of on others than to ourselves - More conscious of situational factors to myself, than others Defensive Attribution - Blame the victim Self-serving Bias - Good news is something about me, bad news is about the situation - We attribute success to ourselves Discounting - Something negative about the other person, we use that to attribute why they are behaving that way - Attribute that behaviour to that negative motive in the doctor o Ex: don’t use the medicine because the doctor’s motive is to make money out of it Augmentation - Attribute his behaviour to higher motives - Follow this doctor’s advice and believes what he gives is the best Am I Really Sick? - Skelton: 3 factors that lead us to decide whether we are sick - Attend to bodily sensations - Interpret sensations in the context of illness o Conscious and aware of thirst is a sign of diabetes, then we will get concern for constancy of thirst - Negative mood Information and Self-Regulatory Theory - Applying attribution process - Information in our head gets to decide what we do to look after ourselves - Information regulates how we behave - Culture: hands us some schemas o Ex: if you experience pain, suck it up - Amount of information: access to information in the Internet o Medical students disease - Social comparison Attribution Therapies James-Lange Theory - What determines how you feel: is based on biological state - There is a biological state for each feeling Cannon-Bard Theory - Increased level of adrenaline in the system that is associated with fear - Found the anger (fight response) has high level of adrenaline - Supports the James-Lange theory - Explains major emotions: fight/flight, does not example joyful Two-Factor Theory of Emotion (by Schachter and Singer) - Confederate for half of the population perceived as happy; another confederate perceived as sad - Epinephrine = feel more alert, perspire more, heart goes faster - When people didnt know the impact of the drug (given the placebo), they just felt the way they did (no change) - Subjects with epinephrine with happy confederate: felt positive - When theres no physiological change in their body, there’s no way to see whether there are changes - When given epinephrine, they felt different o They noticed the positive side of epinephrine, interpreted it as good stuff o Impacted by situational factors - When people told accurate info about epinephrine, subjects responded whatever the doctors said o The happy/anxious confederate had no impact on them Autonomic arousal Cognitive interpretation of that arousal - What do you attribute to cause that arousal Ovid - Wrote about how to make women fall in love with you Misattribution and the Exacerbation Model Ross, Rodin, and Zimbardo - Subjects worked on puzzles that were hard/impossible to do - All told that they are studying loud noise on puzzle solving - ½ people told noise causes arousal (geared up); ½ people told noise makes you drowsy (weary/tired) - 1 puzzle was done and measure how long you’ve worked on it - 1 puzzle if done, you would win some money - 1 puzzle, need to avoid severe electric shocks - See how long the people will work on the puzzle under the belief that noise causes arousal/drowsy - Case 1: Monetary award – both group worked equally long (measured in minutes) - Case 2: Avoid getting shocked – noise causes you sleepy group spent more time working on the puzzle o If told noise causes you tired, they work harder to get rid of weary  You feel awful too; that feeling of arousal is completely based on the shock  Since they want to avoid that feeling of shock, they work harder to complete the puzzle o If told noise causes you arousal, have that same miserable feeling, it’s because of the noise and the shock that made them miserable; tricked that noise causes anxiety instead of shock  Attribute uncomfortable feeling to the noise to avoid getting the shock  Didn’t think all their anxiety is attributed to the noise; part of that anxiety is associated with the shock as well Storms and Nisbett - Previous study: convince the noise causes bad feelings - Help study having trouble falling asleep (insomniacs) o Lie in bad and make attributions of not being able to fall asleep o Believed that these negative attributions they make them aroused and not able to fall asleep o Thoughts exacerbating the situation - Trick people into making attributions that would not cause them aggravations - Have subjects 1/3 groups – told doing study of dreams, and effects of dreams (all pills had no active ingredient) o Group 1: arousal pill – told pill had problem, keeps you awake. Told the pills’ fault if you can’t fall asleep o Group 2: sedation pill – this pill makes you sleepy ; this pill helped you fall asleep o Group 3: asked them how long it took them to fall asleep - Group 3: still not falling asleep sooner o The sedation did not “really work” on them, so they had more negative thoughts - Group 1: fall asleep sooner o They cant fall asleep, because it was the pill. Not about negative thoughts, so they fell asleep sooner Veridical Reattribution Lowery, Denney, and Storms - Taught subjects the process of sleep - Less threatening than having bad negative thoughts - Making more accurate attributions Case Studies - A homosexual guy very upset and so is his wife - After people experience a horrible event, feel very awful and affect you in very dramatic ways o They attribute the awful feelings to characteristics of themselves o Help them reattribute their horrible feeling – tell them they are having normal feelings Veridical Reattribution and Drug Psychosis - Became psychotic after taking LSD - Becker: see comparisons with marijuana; look at historical data o Looked at how many admissions there were in hospitals that were called drug psychosis (1900-1968) o Looked at data he had, and how many people used marijuana from 1900-present  2 variables: hospital admission due to drug psychosis, # people using marijuana o Rates were higher in beginning of century, as the year progress, the # admission to hospital dropped o In early 1900s – marijuana use was not very high; as years progress, more people use marijuana (but yet # of people admission in hospital dropped) The Social Basis for the Drug-Induced Experience - If drug taken by novice, take it for new experience – will have different perception, poor judgments o Older culture: drug causes insanity – pushes more adrenaline in the body, think they are going crazy  Going to hospital reinforces the idea that marijuana makes you crazy  Crystallizes the underlying disorder; makes the problem to a real problem  Makes you have panic attack, more adrenaline  Psychotic episode happens = higher level of anxiety (drawn on by attributions people make) o Drug culture: talks about it, understand nature of the drug  Normalizes the experience to an abnormal traumatic event  Make attributions that it is not me who is going crazy, it is the drug  Being accurate and truthful about making these attributions, help calm down them Veridical Reattribution and Sex Problems History of Sex Research - People evaluate you as a person on what you are doing - We make attribution about the person - People take it to heart, and judge it relative to the norm nd - No real research done, until after 2 world war Kinsey Reports - Interviewed lots of people about what they did sexually on a daily basis o 1948: Almost every male masturbates o 1953: female report of their sexual activities Masters and Johnson - Studied people having sex - Clinical interviews, had observations, took physiological measures - Problems people experienced had nothing to do with biological/physiological/psychological problems o Had lots to do with cultural learning – taught by culture ideas about sex that interfere their joy of sex o Make correct veridical reattribution Myths and Fallacies Myths of Males’ Sexual Wisdom - Our culture has misconception that men genetically by divine guidance, able to know exactly what women want sexually and when they want it - This interferes sexual communication The search for Aphrodisiacs - Aphrodisiacs = something that turns you on sexually Penis size - No need a large penis to stimulate Masturbation - Thought of as causing blindness - 1959: ½ medical schools in 3 universities believe it causes insanity - 20% professors think masturbation causes mental illness o Thought this because saw 100% mental patients masturbate Two Types of Orgasm in Women - Clitoral orgasm - Vaginal orgasm – only fully developed women would experience this Single versus Multiple Orgasm - Orgasm and ejaculation is not the same thing Focus on orgasm - Measuring who you are based on orgasm messes up/objectifies sex Myth of the identify of male/female sexual urges - Age 17: 100% male 35% female experienced orgasm - 80-95% male 20-35% female admitted masturbation - Saw men as the standards; Sex as a Barometer of a good relationship - They are different things Sex and old age Masters and Johnson view of the Sex Response - 1) Excitement stage o Can be seconds, minutes, hours - 2) Plateau stage o Built up of fluids - 3) Orgasm stage o Contractions; physiological climax of sexual response - 4) Resolution stage LECTURE 3 Behavioural Therapy for Sexual Problems - Socio-cultural deprivation and ignorance of sexual physiology o Not getting enough information about the topic o Given psycho-education (myths and fallacies) - Systematic desensitisation o When people have trouble doing something, get them to feel comfortable o Ask them to refrain from sexual activities other than the prescribed ones o Start with something couples feel comfortable with o Focus on enjoying of the prescribed activity Modern Sex Education - Sex = not something we do, but something that we are - Children get sex ed from media, not from parents - Should teach it early starting at age 5 - Self-awareness o Teach values of sharing, cooperating, respecting others’ rights/privacy o Control emotions - Physiology o Teach proper terms of body parts - Reproductive - Family Attitudes - An idea we have about human, that we think is kind of useful - General and enduring positive/negative feeling about something Beliefs - Reserve for information that a person has for things - That information in our head can be factual or can be personal opinion - Bunch of beliefs form our attitudes Why study attitudes? - Help get summary of overall beliefs – helpful to predict their behaviour - Know where people stand 8 Approaches to Attitude Formation and Change - 8 approach (ELM) = theory that embraces the preceding 7 theories 8) Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) - Step 1: Persuasive Appeal o a. Central route (the route of intellectual ideas)  Audience: ability to analyze and motivated to do so  Processing: put cognitive energy (elaboration) – come up on their own thoughts  Persuasion: evoke enduring agreement; strong arguments you create yourself, the thoughts you have not the persuasive appeal that change you (thoughts of agreement with speaker/opposite) o b. Peripheral Route (not the ideas that people have)  Audience: not the correct audience to persuade (asking students to invest in RRSP)  Processing: use peripheral cues (other cues other than cues related to persuasion)  Persuasion: what is influencing their decision is based on their thoughts 1) Conditioning and Modelling Approaches Classical conditioning: Ex: antibuse (drug took on daily basis) to fix alcoholics – if you drink alcohol, you will get awfully sick Operant conditioning: Behaviour modification: reward/punishment Modelling: Conform to groups or do what the norm is doing 2) Message Learning Approach - Persuasive message: understandable? If no, then no attitude change - Attention to message - Comprehension of message - Acceptance of message - Communicator: Who says? Where is the info coming from? Credible? Trustworthy? o Communicator factors = trust - Message content: what? Emotional/reason argument? o Message factor = fear  People brush teeth with high fear has more plaques  Need to use fear appropriately to influence people  People brush teeth with low-moderate fear has less plaques - Channel: how messages are framed o Channel factor = positive / negative frame o Depends on what you are trying to influence = detection behaviours / prevention behaviours  Detection behaviours = negatively framed messages are more effective (ex: breast, skin)  Prevention behaviours = positively framed messages/combo of both (ex: use sunscreen) o Personal vs media - Audience: o What motivates them? o We need to tailor our message to the audience Speaker’s position contrary to Speaker’s position not contrary the audience to the audience Audience with well articulated  Repeat your points over and attitude or scheme over again Audience with poorly  Give them more detailed  articulated attitude or scheme strategies/reasons Transtheoretical Model - 1) Pre-contemplation Stage = not aware there is a problem (ex: not getting enough exercise or sleep) o Insensitive that the problem is dangerous to their health o Underestimate the benefit of change - 2) Contemplation stage = out of the ignorance is bliss stage; give them social support - 3) Maintenance = doing the appropriate behaviour; study the root of the problem and alternatives o Figure out alternatives to deal with the problem - 4) Termination = when you are successful 3) Judgmental Approaches - Based on past experiences or what you’ve seen before (an anchor) or self perception Sherif’s Latitude of Acceptance: The Perspective Approach - Within latitude of acceptance: assimilated their ideas to my ideas - Within latitude of rejection: others’ idea is contrast to own point of view - Ego involvement = how much time/energy you put into your position/idea/attitude o If put lots of time involved, latitude of acceptance is narrower Hedonic Adaptation - Trying to pick up your respect to make yourself feel better by seeing the good around you - Help protect psychological health during chronic diseases - Mental scale people use to judge how you are feeling shifts, so their neutral point for comparison change 6) Combinatory Approaches - When put ideas together, they don’t add the positive attributes. They take the average of the attributes - Primitive - Core: religion beliefs - Authority: professionals - Peripheral: fashion 7) Self-Persuasion Approaches - The ideas trigger belief, which influence your behaviour - The more you think/argue your idea, the more polarized/extreme your beliefs become 4) Motivational Approaches - Blame the victim - Cognitive dissonance = when we have cognitions and ideas in our head, the 2 cognitions can have relationship to each other… o Irrelevant: the 2 ideas have nothing to do with one another o Consonant: ex: raining in Toronto, and I am standing outside Toronto and I am getting wet o Dissonant: ex: raining in Toronto, and I am standing outside Toronto and I am not getting wet  Irritating to hear something that doesn’t follow with what you just heard  We bolster to make it sensible – thinking thoughts that make sense  This only works in free choice situation - Bolstering o Get people to do behaviours with minimum external reward (less of a contrast – ex: Mercedes/cookies) LECTURE 4 Attitudes Towards Persons With Disabilities - Left handed is not a disability, but is an impairment, like a handicap (scissors made for lefty) - Only 1 function kidney (damaged from cancer etc.) – physical thing that leads to disability - Disability = condition of impairment (physical/mental) that has obje
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