Health Psychology Midterm #1
- Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being.
- The bio-psychosocial model suggests that what health is may vary from culture
- Within a culture “what is health” changes as the status quo is shaken.
- Evolution of activism consists of unions, medical research, consumerism, court
awards, technology, commercialized medicine, and public and workforce
- We have an active role to play in our own health, what we do and think
impacts our health.
- Health is a complete set of well-being, physical well being (bio), mental well
being (psycho), and social well being (social).
- Environmental and occupational medicine looked at what people do and its
impact on health.
- Hippocrates observed the environment of the patient.
- Bernardo Ramazzini studied diseases of tradesmen.
- Systematic research consists of systematic observation correlation, and
- Correlational studies compare changes in variables (cannot determine
- Prospective designs (longitudinal) consist of looking forward.
- Retrospective research consists of looking backward.
- Attribution Process “Naive Psychology” relates to what you think and its
impact on health. Wetry to discern the motives and personality traits
psychologists look at how such judgments are made.
- Information and self regulatory theory is influenced by culture and schema,
amount of info, and social comparison.
- A fundamental attribution error is one that causes us harm; it is the idea that
as humans we tend to be bias in not giving the environment credit in
influencing our behaviour.
- Defence attribution is when the victim is blamed.
- Information and what we think regulates how our health is influenced.
- Attribution therapies involve self defeating vs. self-enhancing: The James-
Lange theory is that being in a physiological state of fear, and that we
identify this state as fear. The Cannon-Bard theory is that there cannot be a
specific biological state for every biological feeling.
- Hormone feelings consist of levels of epinephrine, or other hormones affect
and influence biological state.
- The two-factor theory of emotion Schechter and Singer determines the effect
of epinephrine on subjects. When given the epinephrine most interpreted
their internal feelings from the situation (the confederates apparent
reaction) and not so with the placebo, and not so when informed about the
true nature of the drug.
- Veridical reattribution involves what is happening within his or her
subjective experience. - Veridical reattribution and drug psychosis: the nature of the drug LSD caused
psychotic episodes, although the nature of this drug was not to cause these
episodes. As time went by admission to hospitals because of drug psychosis
dropped with marijuana use, also as time went by the # of people who used
marijuana increased as well. This lead to a theory about LSD.
- Veridical reattribution and sex problems: are problems with sex research are
that it is a private experience, many people are unwilling to discuss their
sex life/problems, also people evaluate you as a person by what you are
- The myth of the male sexual wisdom: is that men are able to know exactly
what or when a women wants something sexually.
- The search for aphrodisiacs: there is no guarantee as what may be considered
a true aphrodisiac, except the drink the Spanish fly; it makes the urinary
- Penis size: it was found that it is not important, although 30% of women
psychologically believe that this matters.
- Masturbation is considered as a part of self awareness but it does not cause
mental illness as some used to believe.
Chapter 1: What is Health Psychology?
- Health psychology is derived to understanding psychological influences on
how people stay healthy, why they become ill, and how they respond when
they do become ill.
- Health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being, and not
merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
- The humoral theory of illness, is when the 4 circulating fluids of the body
(blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm) are out of balance, therefore
illness is caused (Hippocrates).
- Conversion hysteria (Freud) is when specific unconscious conflicts can
produce certain physical disturbances that symbolize the repressed
psychological conflicts. The patient converts the conflict into a symptom
via the voluntary nervous system, he/she then becomes relatively free of
the anxiety the conflict would produce.
- Psychosomatic medicine helped with bodily disorders caused by emotional
- The bio-psychosocial model implies that it’s fundamental assumption is that
health and illness are consequences of the interplay of biological,
psychological, and social factors.
- The bio-medical model maintains that all illness can be explained on the basis
of aberrant somatic processes, such as biochemical imbalances or
- The systems theory maintains that all levels of organization in any entity are
linked to each other hierarchically and that change in any level will effect
change in all other levels.
- Masters and Johnsons’ behavioural therapy for sexual problems involved a focus on socio- cultural deprivation and ignorance of sexual physiology,
instead focused on the relationship as a whole, through systematic
desensitization (specific sexual exercises), and a focus on pleasure (no
- Seeing parents and others comfortable with sex is the best education, there are
4 concepts: self- awareness, physiological, reproductive, and family.
- Puberty is started by the hypothalamus, hormones are chemical messengers,
hormones are secreted by the endocrine system and cause the body to
grow and change.
An attitude can be defined as a general and enduring positive or negative
feeling about some person, object, or issue. There are 8 approaches to
attitude formation (PETTY & CACIOPPO):
o Conditioning and modelling approaches
o The message learning approaches
o Judgemental approaches
o Motivational approaches
o Attribution approaches
o Combinatory approaches
o Self-persuasion approaches
o The elaboration likelihood model
With the elaboration likelihood model there are 2 routes to attitude change
(central and peripheral): the central route (persuasive appeal route) is
analytical and motivated, it needs a high effort, arguments that evoke an
enduring agreement, and a response. The peripheral route is not
analytical/involved, it is low effort, events that trigger liking and acceptance
are often only temporary, and finally a response.
Rucker and Petty came up with steps in developing risk communications for
o Must consider audience elaboration level
o Evaluate message characteristics
o Have a message objective type of change
o Evaluate the fit from steps 1-3
o Test the message effectiveness
o Evaluate the message effectiveness
Classical conditioning can be used in antibioses.
Operant conditioning can be used in behaviour modification.
Modelling is the conformity to a group (parents are models for their offspring)
The message learning approach asks the communicator questions like what
Message factors consist of framing the message, either negative or positive, and performing or not performing the behaviour.
Detection behaviours are negatively framed messages, and are found more
Prevention behaviours, consist of positive messages, it has been found that a
combination of positive and negative messages is most effective. - The
trans-theoretical model (spiral model of changes) involves: termination,
maintenance, contemplation, preparation and action, pre contemplation, and
then contemplation preparation and action again. Weinstein developed the
precaution adoption process model which involves:
o Hearing of a potential hazard
o Belief that hazard poses risk for others
o Acknowledges a personal susceptibility to the hazard
o Has decided not to act or to act
o Is acting
o And has maintained the behaviour
Judgmental approaches are how judgements are relative to anchors such as
past experience, and a personal view of self or attitude.
The sheriffs latitudes is an perspective approach and consists of id a near point
of view leads to assimilation, if it is far from a point of view it leads to
contrast. The latitude of non-commitment suggests there is some space
between acceptance and rejection in which we cannot predict the outcome
for. If there is ego involvement then there is narrow latitude of acceptance.
One also sees issues in terms of self perception.
Hedonic adaptation occur when the mental scale that people use to judge the
pleasantness or unpleasantness of their experiences shifts so that their
neutral point or baseline for comparison changes. This helps protect mental
and physical health during setbacks such as disease.
The arguments that you generate yourself change your attitudes, the more you
think or argue a point of view the more polarized your beliefs become.
Motivational approaches are based on feeling or view that the world is an
orderly place so that virtue will be rewarded and evil punished (ex. Cognitive
Beliefs may be irrelevant, consonant, or dissonant.
Attribution approaches, are like dissonance but they discard feelings of
dissonance, and are based on a need to find order, and seek out causes of
what we experience.
Disabilities are comprised of the social and physical limitations which prevent
a person from normal functioning, and reaching full potential. -Attitudes
have 3 components: thoughts (intellect), feelings (emotions), and actions
The concept of spread is that stereotypes are considered overgeneralizations
about people, this concept is the idea that we do not hesitate to make
assumptions about a personality trait of a person who is disable.
Thought: devices to overcome stereotyping consist of indexing which is actively remembering differences within a category dating which is the idea
that people constantly change, and etcetera that no description is ever
Sources of negative feelings: the need to see a just world, cultural and parental
training reinforce this. Isolation, uncertainty and anxiety are reinforced by
the reaction to own anxiety.
To improve negative feelings, one must understand feelings, and have
exposure to individuals with disabilities. The actions are rejection, social
interaction, and finally acceptance.
Stage 1- fictional acceptance
Stage 2- Breaking through
Stage 3- normalization of relationship
Chapter 2: Systems of the Body:
• The nervous system is a complex network of interconnected nerve fibres that
function to regulate many important bodily functions, including the response
to and recovery from stress.
• Sensory nerve fibres provide input to the brain and the spinal cord by carrying
signals from sensory receptors.
• Motor nerve fibres provide output from the brain/spinal cord to muscles and
other organs resulting in the voluntary or involuntary movement.
• The central nervous system consists of brain and spinal cord, the rest consist
of the peripheral nervous system.
• The peripheral nervous system is made of somatic and autonomic nervous
system. The somatic or involuntary nervous system connects, nerve fibres to
voluntary muscles and provide the brain with feedback in the form of
sensory information. The autonomic nervous system connects the central
nervous system with all of the internal organs over which people do not have
• Regulation of the autonomic nervous system occurs via the sympathetic
nervous system (it regulates stress, fight or flight, catabolic system), and the
parasympathetic nervous system (controls normal circumstances, anabolic
• The afferent is sensory, and efferent is motor.
• The hindbrain: medulla receives information about the rate at which the heart
is contracting, it speeds up or slows down the heart rate as required. The
pons is the link between hindbrain and midbrain and assists in respiration.
The cerebellum coordinates voluntary muscle movement, maintains balance
• The forebrain consists of the thalamus, which involves recognition of sensory
stimuli and relay of sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex, and consists of
the hypothalamus which regulates centres in the medulla that control cardiac
functioning, blood pressure, and respiration.
• The epencephalon is in the forebrain and incorporates the cerebral cortex
which is the largest portion of the brain and is involved in higher order intelligence, memory, and personality.
• The cerebral cortex contains the frontal lobe (motor cortex), parietal lobe
(somato-sensory cortex), temporal lobe (auditory and olfactory impulses),
and the occipital lobe (visual cortex).
• The basal ganglia help make muscle contradicting be orderly, smooth, and
• The limbic system plays an important role in stress and emotional responses.
• Neurotransmitters regulate nervous system functioning. Epinephrine and
Norpinephrine together are termed the catecholamine’s these substances
enter the bloodstream and are carried throughout the body to promote
activity of sympathetic stimulation.
• The endocrine system complements the nervous system in controlling bodily
• Autoimmunity is a condition characterized by a specific humoral or cell
mediated immune response that attacks the body’s own tissues.
• Diabetes is a chronic endocrine disorder in which the body is not to
manufacture or properly use insulin.
• The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart, blood vessels, and blood
and acts as the transport system of the body.
• Atherosclerosis is caused by deposits of cholesterol and other substances on
the arterial walls, which form plaque that narrow the arteries.
• Angina pectoris is chest pain, which occurs because the muscle tissue of the
heart must continue its activity without a sufficient supply of oxygen or
adequate removal of carbon dioxide and other waste products.
• A myocardial infarction is most likely to occur when a clot has formed in a
coronary vessel and blocks the flow of blood to the heart.
• Blood pressure is the force that blood exerts against the blood vessel walls.
• Platelets serve to clump together to block small holes that develop in blood
vessels and play an important role in blood clotting.
• The respiratory system involves a number of organs, air is inhaled through the
nose and mouth and the passes through the pharynx and larynx to the
• Immunity is that body’s resistance to injury from invading organisms.
• Nonspecific immune mechanisms are a general set of responses to any kind of
infection or disorder.
• Specific immune mechanisms are always acquired after birth, fight particular
micro-organisms and their toxins.
• Phagocytosis is the process by which certain white blood cells ingest microbes,
phagocytes are usually overproduced where there is a bodily infection so
that the site of infection if ingest foreign particles.
• Humoral immunity is mediated by B lymphocytes, these protect against
bacteria and preventing a viral infection.
• Cell-mediated immunity involves T-lymphocytes from the thymus gland, and
kills the infection.
• The lymphatic system is a drainage system of the body it is involved in
important ways in immune functioning. Health Behaviours:
Health promotion means being aware both of health habits that pose risks for
future disease and of already existing risks, such as the vulnerability of
breast cancer. It is a general philosophy that has at its core the idea that good
health, or wellness, is a personal and collective achievement.
Health behaviours are behaviours undertaken by people to enhance or
maintain their health.
A health habit is a health related behaviour that is firmly established and often
preformed automatically without awareness.
Instilling good health habits and changing poor ones is the task of primary
The health locus of control is the perception that one’s health is under
personal control, and is controlled by powerful others such as physicians or
is determined by external factors including chance.
Socialization is the process, by which people learn the norms, rules, and beliefs
associated with their family and society, parents and social institutions are
usually the major agents of socializations.
A teachable moment refers to the fact that certain times are better than others
for teaching a particular health practice.
A window of vulnerability is the fact that at certain times people are more
vulnerable to particular health problems.
Fear appeals are efforts to change attitudes by arousing fear to induce the
motivation to change behaviours; fear appeals are used to try to get people to
change poor health habits.
The health belief model states that whether person practices particular health
behaviour can be understood by knowing 2 factors, whether the person
perceives a personal health threat and whether the person believes that a
particular health practice will be effective in reducing that threat.
The prospect theory is the theory that different presentations of risk
information will change people’s perspectives and actions.
Self-efficacy is the belief that one is able to control one’s practice of a particular
The theory of planned behaviour is derived from the theory of reasoned action,
this theoretical viewpoint maintains that a person’s behavioural intentions
and behaviours can be understood by knowing the persons attitudes about
the behaviour, subjective norms regarding the behaviour and the perceived
behavioural control over that action.
Cognitive behavioural theory approaches to health habit modification change
the focus to the target behaviour itself, the conditions that elicit and maintain
it and the factors that reinforce it.
Self-observation/self-monitoring is accessing the frequency, antecedents and
consequences of target behaviour to be modified.
Classical conditioning is the pairing of a stimulus with an unconditioned reflex,
such that over time the new stimulus acquires a conditioned response, evoking the same behaviour, the process by which an automatic response is
conditioned to a new stimulus.
Operant conditioning is the pairing of a voluntary, non-automatic behaviour to
a new stimulus through reinforcement or punishment.
Modelling is a learning that occurs by virtue of witnessing another person
Observation and subsequent modelling can be effective approaches to
changing health habits.
A discriminative stimulus is an environmental stimulus that is capable of
eliciting a particular behaviour.
Stimulus-control interventions are interventions designed to modify
behaviour that involves the removal of discriminative stimuli that evoke a
behaviour targeted for change and the substitution of a new discriminative
stimuli that will evoke a desired behaviour.
Self-control is a state in which an individual desiring to change behaviour
learns how to modify the antecedents and the consequences of that target
Self- reinforcement is systematically rewarding or punishing one’s self to
increase or decrease the occurrence of the target behaviour.
Contingency contracting is when an individual forms a contract with another
person, such as a therapist detailing what rewards/punishments are
contingent on non- performance/performance of behaviour.
Covert self-control trains individuals to recognize and modify these internal
monologues to promote health behaviour change.
Cognitive restructuring is a method for modifying internal monologues that
has been widely used in the treatment of stress disorders.
Self-talk are internal monologues, people tell themselves things that may
undermine/help them implement appropriate health habits.
Behavioural assignments are home practice activities that support the goals of
a therapeutic intervention, they are designed to provide continuity in the
treatment of a behaviour problem, and typically, these assignments follow up
points in the therapeutic session.
Social skills training/assertiveness training is part of the intervention package
and is used to alter health habits; they are techniques that train people how
to be appropriately assertive in social situations.
Relaxation training; are procedures that help people relax, they include
progressive muscle relaxation and deep breathing, they may also include
guided imagery and forms of mediation or hypnosis.
The broad-spectrum cognitive behaviour therapy is the use of a broad array of
cognitive behavioural intervention techniques to modify the individual’s
Abstinence violation effect is a feeling of loss of control that results when a
person has violated self-imposed rules.
Relapse prevention is a set of techniques designed to keep people from
relapsing to prior health habits after initial successful behaviour modification, includes training in coping skills for high risk for relapse
situations, and lifestyle rebalancing.
Lifestyle rebalancing is the long term maintenance of behaviour change that
can be promoted by leading the person to make other health orientated
changes in lifestyle.
The trans-theoretical model of behaviour change accounts for and analyses the
stages of change that people go through as they attempt to change the health
behaviour and suggests treatment goals and interventions for each stage.
Social engineering involves modifying the social environment in ways that
affect people’s ability to practise the particular health behaviour.
Aerobic exercise is a high intensity, long duration, and high endurance
exercise, believed to contribute to cardiovascular fitness and other positive
Anorexia nervosa is a condition produced by excessive dieting and exercise
that yields body weight grossly below optimal level, most common among
Bulimia is an eating syndrome characterized by alternating cycles of binge
eating and purging through such techniques as vomiting or extreme dieting.
A clinical breast exam is a thorough physical examination of the breast by a
health care professional to detect changes or abnormalities that could
indicate the early signs of breast cancer.
Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat, believed to contribute to a
variety of health disorders including cardiovascular disease.
The set point theory of weight is the concept that each individual has an ideal
biological weight that cannot be greatly modified.
Sleep apnoea is an air pipe blockage that disrupts sleep and can compromise
health. When apnoea occurs, a sleeping person stops breathing sometimes
for as long as 3 minutes, until he/she suddenly wakes up gasping for air.
Stress eating is eating in response to stress, approximately half the population
increases eating in response to stress.
Changing Behaviour – The modern multifaceted approach:
Traditional approaches are laws and organizational rules (they do work) and
educational motivational appeals (can result in new awareness and new
Both traditional approaches “tell” what to do, therefore get reactance.
Law based strategies need to reflect community consensus, they require
surveillance and control, and do not allow freedom of choice.
Educational/motivational appeals yield only short term results if any compete
with other factors in life and requires other competence to have a strong
Social marketing links target behaviour to existing needs, interests, etc.
Personal participation links onto what the target group is willing to do. Local group/community participation consists of: the workplace, community
groups, organizations used to deliver and institutionalize programs, need to
design programs to help the organizations achieve their goals.
Social marketing takes commercial/product marketing techniques and
attempts to sell us health (proper eating, exercise, etc).
Social marketing needs to segment and define the target group, develop
programs which link groups, and present programs to target groups to be
Step 1- get social demographic data
Step 2 - conduct focus groups
Step 3 – develop a survey
Step 4 – select, develop, and tailor programs
Step 5 – regular evaluations
Step 6 – the institutionalization of programs
Behaviour modification in the workplace consists of a peer evaluation
program, or a continuous improvement program.
Operant conditioning is the foundation of behaviour modification: antecedent
(prompts), behaviour (actions), consequences (rewards/punishments).
Behaviour modification is how environment and situational factors already
Behaviour modification began with B.F. Skinner.
4 environments: physical, task, organizational, and social-cultural.
Behaviour modification and achieving self control: specify your target
behaviour, gather baseline data, design a program, execute and evaluate your
program, and finally end your program.
Health Compromising Behaviours:
Physical dependence is the state that occurs when the body has adjusted to the
substance and incorporates the use of that substance into the normal
functioning of the body’s tissues.
Physical dependence often involves tolerance, which is the process by which
the body increasingly adapts to the use of the substance.
Craving is a strong desire to engage in behaviour or consume a substance.
Addiction occur when a person has become physically or psychology
dependant on a substance following use overtime.
Withdrawal refers to the unpleasant symptoms that people experience when
they stop using a substance they are dependent on.
Harm reduction is an “approach that focuses on the risks and consequences of
substance use rather than on the use itself”.
Alcohol is responsible for more than 8000 deaths per year, making it one of the
leading causes of preventable death after tobacco and improper diet and
The term alcoholic is reserved for someone who is physically addicted to alcohol. Problem drinkers may have substantial social, psychological, and
medical problems resulting from alcohol.
For hard-core alcoholics, the 1st phase of treatment is detoxification, because
this can produce severe symptoms and health problems, detoxification is
typically conducted in a carefully supervised and medically monitored
setting. Once the alcoholic is partly dried out therapy is initiated, the typical
program begins with a short-term, intensive inpatient treatment followed by
a period of continuing treatment on an outpatient basis.
Placebo drinking involves the consumption of non-alcoholic beverages while
others are drinking or the alternation of an alcoholic with a non alcoholic
beverage to reduce the total volume of alcohol consumed.
Self-help aids are programs developed to quit an addiction on their own like
with smoking. Smoking prevention programs are aimed to catch potential
smokers early and attack the underlying motivations that lead people to
Evans social influence intervention consists of 2 central perspectives: first the
modelling of others, by observing models that are apparently enjoying a risky
behaviour, a successful intervention program with adolescents must include
the potential for modelling high-status, non-smokers.
The 2nd behavioural inoculation is that if one can expose individuals to a
weak, version of a persuasive message, they may develop counterarguments
against that message, so that they can successfully resist if the encounter is in
a stronger form.
The life skills training approach is that if adolescents are trained in self esteem
and coping enhancements as well as social skills, they will not feel the need
to smoke per say to bolster their self image, the skills will enhance the
adolescent’s sense of being an efficacious person.
Chapter 1 Health Psychology
· Health psychology:
o understanding psychological influences and how ppl stay healthy.
o Why they become ill
o How they react to getting ill
· Health definition
o “complete state of physical, mental and social well-being not merely the
o Some use ‘’wellness’’ instead
· Health psychologists focus on:
o Health promotion and maintenance
o Prevention and treatment
o Etiology, correlates of health, illness, dysfunction.
§ Etiology -is origins that cause illness: tend to look at social factors, and states of mind to determine illness’ cause. Also habits and learned activities.
o Develop recommendations to improve health care and promotion · Early
Philosophers: evil spirits cause of disease.
· Greeks: bodily functions to attribute health.
o Hippocrates/Galen: disease caused by bodily factors, which also impact on
· Middle ages: evils and punishment
· Morgannis 1682- autopsy and rejection of humoral theory of illness
o Freud: conversion hysteria
§ Unconscious conflicts produce psychological disturbances
§ Dunbar/Alexander: linked patterns of personality to specific conflicts and illness
· Conflicts produce anxiety; takes physiological toll on body via autonomic
§ Medicine: profiles of particular disorders caused by psychological disorders
· Current view of Body-Mind Relationship
o Good habits, under ones control, culture, social factors, socio-economic factors,
stress all attribute to health.
Body n mind together determine health/illness; study both. Health and illness
are consequence of interplay between biological, psychological and social
Biomedical model: Biomedical model is the basis that all illness can be
explained by biochemical imbalances or neuropsychological abnormalities Is
a reductionist modelo
Reduces illness to low level processes(disordered cells/chemical)
Rather than to habits and social/psychological processes
Single cause model of illness
Assumes a mind-body dualism.
BioPsychological bases on many factors at all levels and uses system theory:
system theory: hierarchy of linked systems affecting each and every levels
Single cause factor Multiple cause and factors
Mind-body dualism Inseparable mind/body
Emphasizes illness over health Both health/illness emphasized
Reductionist Macro/micro levels considered Clinical implications of BioPsycho-model
o Interdisciplinary approach
o Recommendations for treatment must examine all three sets of factors
o Explicit significance relationship b/w patient and practitioner
Changing Patterns of Illness
o Until 20th century
Acute illnesses such as TB, pneumonia, infections, were leading illnesses in Canada
Chronic Illnesses(slowly developing, stay for long time) such as heart disease,
cancer, diabetes, disabilities Therefore Health Psychology has come about to
investigate the cause/effect relationship and habits which cause or prevent
Help them adjust psychologically/socially to the changing illnesses
o Identifying genes to attribute a disorder or to inspect early in life
o Identify carriers of life threatening diseases...
o Study of frequency, distribution, cause for infectious diseases
Based on investigations of Physical and Social environments
Search why some places have more prevalent than others
Morbidity: number of cases of diseases at any point in time.Mortality: number
of deaths attributed to a particular cause
Both statistics are essential to creating safer environments
(Car accidents a good example)(along with the precautions instituted)
Concerned not only with biological outcomes, but also health related quality
outcomes Not only prevention, but also improving quality of life to
symptomatic complaints from chronic illnesses
Changing Perspectives on Health/Health Care o WHO: health is a positive
state rather than a mere absence of disease
§ 4 main cornerstones to health : Human biology, environment, lifestyle,
o Health is the ‘’capacity of ppl to adapt, respond, and control one life’s
o Health psychs need to understand these determinants and to inform
policy makers, safety boards ,schools boards, news, and the like
o Health Psych represents an important perspective on these issues for
Containing health-care costs and targets is important in modifying illness
through PREVENTION : · Changing ppl’s risky behaviour/habits before they
become ill Design user-friendly healthcare systems to better ones care and quality of care
Its impact on ppl is enormous, employees, patients, practitioners, tax money
Increased Medical Acceptance
oCaregivers are recognizing that psychological/social factors are always
important for health n illness
Techniques which take minutes to teach, will have life-lasting effects of benefit
oRandomized clinical trials also act as experiments in treatment and their
oHow ppl adjust to cancer in groups or not by comparison
oBy manipulating variables they can judge cause-effects relationships
oMeasures whether a change in a variable corresponds with changes in
I.e.: ppl higher in hostility have heightened chances of heart disease o
Disadvantage being the pinpoint accuracy at attributing one on the other,
and not looking at all factors involved
I.e.: ppl might be hostile when they get heart disease instead!
oResearch: looks FORWARD in time to see how a group of individuals change
or how therelationship of 2 variables change over time (i.e.: hostility and
oLongitudinal research: observe same ppl over long period of time
oResearch: Looks BACKWARD in time and attempts to reconstruct the
conditions that led to a current situation
Careers in Practice
No amount of education in a self-care plan for a chronically ill person will be
successful unless the family members are also brought in and educated in the
biomedical model :The viewpoint that illness can be explained on the basis of
aberrant somatic processes and that psychological and social processes are
largely independent of the disease process; the dominant model in medical
practice until recently.
acute disorders: Illnesses or other medical problems that occur over a short
period of time, that are usually the result of an infectious process, and that
are reversible. (See page(s) 9)
biopsychosocial model The view that biological, psychological, and social
factors are all involved in any given state of health or illness. (See page(s) 7)
chronic illnesses Illnesses that are long lasting, are the main contributors to disability and death, and are usually irreversible. (See page(s) 10)
conversion hysteria The viewpoint, originally advanced by Freud, that
specific unconscious conflicts can produce physical disturbances symbolic of
the repressed conflict; no longer a dominant viewpoint in health psychology.
(See page(s) 5)
correlational research Measuring two variables and determining whether
they are associated with each other. Studies relating smoking to lung cancer
are correlational, for example. (See page(s) 14)
epidemiology The study of the frequency, distribution, and causes of
infectious and noninfectious disease in a population, based on an
investigation of the physical and social environment. Thus, for example,
epidemiologists not only study who has what kind of cancer but also address
questions such as why certain cancers are more prevalent in particular
geographic areas.(See page(s) 11)
etiology The origins and causes of illness. (See page(s) 4)
experiment varies the treatments that people in each condition are given, and
then measures the effect on some response. (See page(s) 14)
health:A type of research in which a researcher randomly assigns people to
two or more conditions,
health psychology The absence of disease or infirmity, coupled with a
complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being; health
psychologists recognize health to be a state that is actively achieved rather
than the mere absence of illness. (See page(s) 4)
mind-body relationship:T he subarea within psychology devoted to
understanding psychological influences on health, illness, and responses to
those states, as well as the psychological origins and impacts of health policy
and health interventions. (See page(s) 4) The philosophical position
regarding whether the mind and body operate indistinguishably as a single
system or whether they act as two separate systems; the view guiding health
psychology is that the mind and body are indistinguishable. (See page(s) 4)
longitudinal research: The repeated observation and measurement of the
same individuals over a period of time. (See page(s) 15)
morbidity:The number of cases of a disease that exist at a given point in time;
it may be expressed as the number of new cases (incidence) or as the total
number of existing cases (prevalence). (See page(s) 11
mortality: The number of deaths due to particular causes. (See page(s) 11)
prospective research A research strategy in which people are followed
forward in time to examine the relationship between one set of variables and
later occurrences. For example, prospective research can enable researchers
to identify risk factors for diseases that develop at a later point in time. (See
psychosomatic medicine A field within psychiatry, related to health
psychology, that developed in the early 1900s to study and treat particular
diseases believed to be caused by emotional conflicts, such as ulcers,
hypertension, and asthma. The term is now used more broadly to mean an approach to health-related problems and diseases that examines
psychological as well as somatic origins. (See page(s) 6)
retrospective research A research strategy whereby people are studied for
the relationship of past variables or conditions to current ones. Interviewing
people with a particular disease and asking them about their childhood
health behaviours or exposure to risks can identify conditions leading to an
adult disease, for example. (See page(s) 15)
systems theory: The viewpoint that all levels of an organization in any entity
are linked to each other hierarchically and that change in any level will bring
about change in other levels. (See page(s) 8)
Chapter 2 Health Psychology
- Nervous system: Complex network of interconnected nerve fibres that
functions to regulate many important bodily functions
- Response to stress/ recovery from stress o Motor vehicle fibres provide
output from the brain or spinal cord to muscles and other organs, resulting in
voluntary and involuntary movement
- Made of central nervous system/ peripheral nervous system
- Central: consist of brain and spinal cord
- Peripheral: consist of all other nerves connecting to the brain/spinal cord
somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
- somatic: voluntary; connects nerve to voluntary muscles and provides brain
with feedback in form of sensory info abt the voluntary movements o
- autonomic: Involuntary; connects central nervous sys.
- With all internal organs ppl don’t have control over
- occurs in sympathetic and parasympathetic:
- o sympathetic: plays role in reaction to stress
- Prepares body to respond § Anger/fear § Mobilization/exertion of energy
- Catabolic system
o Parasympathetic: Controls organs under normal circumstances
- Acts antagonistically to sympathetic
- Restores body to normal
- Conserves body § Anabolic system
Brain: Hindbrain/ midbrain:
3 mains in hindbrain :
Receives info about rate heart contraction Speeds or slows down as needed
Blood pressure regulation Blood vessels
Rates of breathing
Serve as link b.w. hind/midbrains
3.Cerebellum: Coordinates voluntary muscle movements
Muscle tone/ posture
o Midbrain: Major pathway for sensory and motor impulses § B.w. forebrain and
2 main section: the diencephalon and telecephalon
Diencephalon: Consists of Thalamus and hypothalamus
Thalamus: Recognizes sensory stimuli and relay of sensory impulses §
Hypothalamus: Regulates the centres in medulla , Control cardiac functioning ,
Blood pressure, Respiration, Water balance , Appetite, Sexual desire
Anxiety: Secretion of hydrochloric acid in stomach via hypothalamus signals
o Cerebral cortex L and R
Largest portion of brain
Left part of motor cortex is for voluntary muscles on right side of body
Right side is for motor cortex controlling voluntary on left side
Touch, pain, temp, pressure
Cortical areas responsible for auditory and olfactory(smell) ·
4. Occipital :Visual cortex
Basal ganglia : 4 round masses embedded deep in cerebrum.
Make muscle contractions smooth n orderly
o Amygdale: are involved in the detection of threat
o Hippocampus; and in emotionally charged memories
o Cingulated gyrus, septum, areas in hypothalamus. Emotional functioning
o Anterior portion of thalamus: Important for social relevant behaviours ·
Regulate nervous system functioning Secretion of 2 neurotransmitters called catecholamines, Epinephrine n
Promoting activity of sympathetic stimulation
Release can increase rates, blood pressure etc...Respiration...,Digestion/urine
lowered, More sweat
Arousal of sympathetic and release of catechlomines important to stress
Have implications on coronary artery disease and hypertension Disorders in
o Epilepsy: § Idiopathic; no specific cause
Injury during birth, head, disease, meningitis, metabolic/nutritional disorders
Seizures of ranging movements
o Cerebral Palsy:
Chronic, nonprogressive disorder
Lack of muscle control
Basal ganglia ruined,
Less smooth motor activation
o Multiple Sclerosis:
Blindness, deafness, mental deterioration
Disintegration of myelin: the fatty membrane surrounding nerve fibres and
facilitates conduction of nerve impulses
Chronic physical and mental deterioration
Muscle spasms § Loss of motor abilities
o Paraplegia and Quadriplegia:
Para: paralysis of lower extremities of spinal cord
Quad: paralysis of all 4 extremities and trunk of body; upper spinal cord
o Made of ductless glands
Secrete hormones into blood
Stimulate changes in target organs
o Depends on nervous systems and affect one another
o Regulated by hypothalamus and pituitary gland:
o 2 lobes in pit gland:
Anterior pit lobe of pit gland secretes hormones responsible for growth:
Somatotropic hormone STH
o Bone, muscle, other organ development
Gonadropic hormone o Control growth development and secretion of the gonads
Thyrotrophic hormone TSH
o Thyroid gland
Andrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH
o Cortex regions of adrenal glands § Posterior lobe of pit gland:
Controls contractions during labour and vasopressin, and antidiuretic
hormone ADH which controls water absorbing of kidneys
o 2 small groups of glands, one on top of each kidney
o Each consists of an adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex
o Adrenal medulla:
Epinephrine and non-epinephrine
o Adrenal cortex:”
Stimulated by ACTH ^ from anterior
Mineralcortcos, glucocorticoids, androgens, estrogens
o Both involved in stress
o Both catechlomines secreted along with sympathetic arousal are implicated in
biological responses to stress
Disorders in Endocrine:
Not able to manufacture or properly use insulin
Over 2 million Canadians §
Type I is insulin dependant
Late in childhood
Autoimmune disorder by early viral infection
Eliminating ability to produce insulin
Type II after 40 yrs old, more common
Disturbance in glucose metabolism and delicate balance between insulin
production/responsiveness to it
Tied to obesity/stress among others
o Comprised of heart, blood vessels, blood
o Transport system for body
o Blood carried oxygen around to lungs and tissues,
o And CO2 is excreted as expired from lungs
o The heart:
Pumping blood to circulate body
Left side(left atrium)/left ventricle takes and pumps into aorta(major artery
leaving heart)then the blood passes to smaller vessels(arteries/capillaries)to reach cell tissues.
Blood exchanges its oxygen and nutrients for the waste materials of cells and is
returned them to right side of heart(atrium/ventricle)who pumps back to the
lungs via the pulmonary artery.
Performs is rhythmic form; Cardiac cycle
During systole: blood pumped out of the heart; blood pressure increases
During diastole: blood pressure drop; muscle relax; blood taken to heart
Heart valves ensures one direction of flow § Most speedup (stress/workout)
comes out of diastolic period
Disorders in CVS:
Caused by deposits of cholesterol and others in arterial walls.
Plaques and narrows these arteries.
Reduces flow of blood through arteries and interferes with nutrients passing
blood clots; cut of blood flow § associated with 2 conditions:
· 1. Angina pectoris: chest pain
o Less oxygen flow supply
· 2. Myocardial infarction (MI)
o Clot develops in coronary vessel
o Blocks flow
Results when calcium, salts, scar tissue react with elastic tissues of arteries
Decrease elasticity of arteries; making rigid n hard
Then causes hypertension
Then aneurysm is a bulge in section of wall of artery or vein; reaction to weak
region of pressure § Phlebitis is an inflammation of vein wall, often
accompanied by water retention/pain; chief in causing clots
o Force that blood exerts against the blood vessel walls
o Systole: greatest force on blood vessel walls
o Diastole: falls to lowest force on walls
o Influenced by:
Cardiac output § Pressure against artery walls is greater as volume of blood
increases § Peripheral resistance of blood flow in small arteries(arterioles)
Influenced by thickness of blood .
Highly viscous blood produces higher blood pressure
o Hypertension is consequence of too high a cardiac output or too high a
o Consists of plasma and cells § Plasma 55% of blood vol; 45% cells
o Blood suspended in plasma which has proteins and electrolytes and nutrients
of the blood oxygen being transferred by the blood
o Bone marrow has 5 types of blood forming cells:
Myeloblast/monoblasts: produce white blood cells(absorb foreign substances
and granules that secrete digestive enzymes) Lymphoblasts: produce lymphocytes(combat foreign substances; produce
Erythroblasts: produce red blood cells (haemoglobin which carry oxygen/c02
Megakaryocytes: platelets ( clump and cause good clots)
o Flow of blood is responsible for temperature
When temp too low, skin blood vessels constrict § Non-epinephrine generally
constricts blood vessels( vasoconstriction)
Epinephrine constricts skin blood vessels while dilating muscle blood vessels
o White cells:
Bad production can cause:
Leukemia: bone marrow; common form of cancer
excessive white blood cells
reduces red blood cells(anaemia results)
leucopenia · deficient white blood cells
accompanied with TB, measles, viral pneumonia
can’t stop infections(antibodies)
leukocytosis: Excessive white cells
Leukemia, appendicitis, mononucleosis
Disorders to Red cells:
Anaemia: Haemoglobin below normal
Many women b.c of menstruation
Can cause permanent damage to nervous system.
Increases viscosity of blood
Reduces rate of blood flow
Sickle cell anaemia:
Inability to make red
Common among blacks
Genetic adaptation promoting resistance to malaria
Unable to produce thromboplastin and fibrin
Cannot clot naturally
Repertory System: o Taking in oxygen, out C02, regulate composition of blood
o Needs oxygen to metabolize food
o Organs: nose, mouth, pharynx, trachea, diapraghm, abdominal muscles, lungs §
Alveoli and capillaries responsible for exchange of O2/C02
o Inspiration: lungs expand in thorax
o Expiration: passive; reduces lung volume
o Controlled by respiratory centre in medulla
o Mucus removed by coughing
Oxygen lack and C02 excess
Shortage of just O2
Reducing CO2 content
Constricts blood vessels; flow to brain hindered
o Hay fever:
Allergic reaction to foreign bodies
Cause inflamed capillaries
Dust, dander, fungi, pollens
May produce hyperventilation/bronchial spasm
o Viral infections:
Common cold § Influenza
Attacking lining of respitory track, killing healthy cells
Inflammation of mucosal membrane in lungs
o Bacterial infections:
Strep, whooping cough, diphtheria
o Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(copd)
Fourth leading killer in Canada § Common/deadly
Chronic bronchitis/emphysema common compromise of copd
Pulmonary emphysema involves persistent obstruction of air flow
When alveoli become dilated, atrophied, and thin so they lose elasticity and
then cannot constrict during exhalation
Then exhalation becomes difficult and CO2 is not eliminated § Lobar is
primary; entire lobe of lung
Bronchial is confined to bronchi; secondary infection to flu o Tuberculosis:
Bacteria invade lung tissue
Obvious tie to smoking
Lungs cells divide rapidly and produce tumour
o Food is lubricated by saliva, round lump called a bolus, through esophogus by
o Then to stomach which produces various gastric secretion of pepsin and HCL o
Pancreatic juices add in containing enzymes which break down carbs, fats n
proteins o Liver metabolizes fats using bile
Excess of lipids including fats cholesterols and lecithin
o Absorption of food in small intestine
Breaks down to amino acids
o Parasympathetic activity speeds up metabolism; sympathetic reduces it o
The large intestine...
Disorders in digestion:
Inflamed lining of stomach
2-4 hrs after ingestion
Vomiting, diahrhea, cramps, nausea
o Dysentery: § Similar to diarrhea except that mucus, pus, an