Study Guides (248,368)
Canada (121,499)
York University (10,209)
Psychology (1,203)
PSYC 3170 (42)
all (1)
Final

Health psychology exam notes.docx

26 Pages
234 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3170
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Summer

Description
 Health psychology: scientific study of psychological processes related to health and health care  Health: state of complete physical, mental and social well-being  Not merely the absence of disease and infirmity  Focus on preventing health nowadays because many health problems are related to life style  General belief that if people can change their lifestyle, their general health could improve  Positive aspects of health focuses on physical, mental and social well-being  Biopsychosocial model: takes into considerations the different systems that are linked together  Bio, cog, socio  Health psychologists involved in research to prevent illness whilst promoting health and reduce health risks  Goal of health: find ways to help people stay healthy and to start treatments Related to alcoholism, stress, and obesity  Biological  Genetics predisposition  Immune system  Viruses, infections, lesions  Physiology  Drugs  Age  Sex  Nutrition  Kiecolt-Glaser et al. 1984: investigating changes in the number of T-cells before and after a stressful period of  Aim: exams  Method: analyze blood samples from volunteer medical students a month and on the first day of their final exams  Also completing scales of life events, bodily symptoms, and satisfaction with interpersonal contacts  Results: second blood sample had significant decrease in the amount of T-cell activity  Conclusion: high stress diminished the effectiveness of the immune system  Students scoring high on stressful life events and loneliness had lower T cell counts than the low scorers  Psychological stress influences immune system  Loneliness increase effects of stress Cognitive / psychological factors  Behaviors and beliefs  Cognition - self-efficacy beliefs  Sense of control  Health knowledge  Optimism - pessimism  Stress an coping  Cognitive appraisal seems to predict health outcomes (as people predict positive or negative outcomes of a disease)  Reed et al 1999: HIV positive people with more pessimistic expectations : develop HIV related symptoms more quickly  They die of AIDS sooner  Expectations also seem to predict some of the immune changes associated with the disease  Kemeny et al. 2006: possibility that pessimistic expectations lead to people giving up, hence influencing their immune system  Kamen and Seligman  Attribution style (pessimistic / optimistic approach to life) can predict poor health later in life  Pessimism may be related to health through decrease in T-cells and suppression in immune system  Direct effect of attribution style and beliefs on the body  Greer et al 1979  Denial and a fighting spirit predicted longer survival for breast cancer  Link between beliefs and physiology  Not that optimism can cure cancer  But people can cope with cancer in a way that prolongs their life as optimistic patients  Social self-preservation theory  Threat's to one's social self / esteem / status are associated with specific negative cognitive and affective responses  Shame, humiliation  Threats can influence physical health  Through immune system / increase levels of cortisol HIV infection often occurs in stigmatized groups (gay / bisexual men / drug abusers)   Stigmatizing sexually transmitted disease  HIV positive gay and bisexual men who are particularly sensitive to rejection related to their sexuality show more rapid progression of the disease than those who are less sensitive to such social-self threats  Predict that biological responses to stress are mediated by self-conscious emotions Sociocultural Context Family   Social support  Cultural influences  Social norms (e.g. smoking / not smoking)  Socio-economic status (SES)  Pressure to change (peers, parents)  Ethnicity  Employment  Health institutions  Aim: differences in physiological stress responses to a number of stressors  Method: seven questionnaires, each related to a different stressor  Blood samples were taken (physiological measure for stress - cholesterol)  Job, environmental, neighborhood, housing, economic, social support, loneliness  Results: person scoring high on one stressor did not necessarily have high score in another  Participants who had high mean score on all seven stressors had blood tests indicating high-risk group for developing heart problems  Relationship seen in terms of psychological effects of stress  Depression, anxiety, and low quality of life  Evaluation: stress research must focus on specific stressors in isolation as well as combination of stressors  Accumulated effect of several stressors may put individuals at increased risk  Taylor 2002:  Aim: whether there's a difference with gender and social support  Method: meta-analysis research of stress and coping  Results:there is a gender difference in relation to social support  Women had more social support to others  Drawing on socially supportive networks more consistently in times of stress  More benefited by social support  Conclusion: theory of "tend and befriend"  Due to evolution, males and females have different stress responses - adaptive for sex  Male: exhibit flight/fight response - triggered by testosterone  Female - exhibit tender-befriend response - triggered by oxytocin  Tend: nurturing activities Befriend: seeking social support  Evaluate psychological research through theories and or studies relevant to health psychology  Shapiro et al 1998  Aim: test whether the MBSR method was efficient  Method: premedical students who were offered a MBSR course (37) or on the waiting list to be in the MBSR course (36)  Equal numbers of males and females  Participants filled out self-report questionnaire assessing stress at the start of the term (before the course) and during exams at the end of the term (after the course)  Designer to coincide with exams ; high-stress period  Fill out questionnaire on empathy  Results: no difference between two groups at the beginning of the term  Waiting list expressed more anxiety than those who had MBSR classes  MBSR course participants scored higher on empathy questionnaire than controls; and they were less depressed and had fewer symptoms of psychological distress  Conclusion: course has taught them to cope effectively with the stress of exams  Evaluation: they cannot be generalized - medical students  Self selected sample too  They were offered course credits to participate - low drop out numbers  Speca et al 2000  Aim: whether cancer patients would benefit from MBSR  Method: controlled test with cancer patients who were interested in taking MBSR course.  2 groups: experimental and waiting list (control)  Stress symptom questionnaire  Results:experimental group had reduction in total mood disturbance (anxiety, anger, depression) by 65%  Reduction in 35% in stress symptoms too  Time spent meditating correlated positively with improvements in mood  No change in average score of control group over same period  Conclusion: MBSR has therapeutic effect  Evaluation: effect was due to social desirability effects  Play a role in patient's self-reports on mood and stress changes  They might want to show that they’ve accomplished something after the treatment  Cost and time efficient Describe stressors  Stress: negative emotional experience accompanied by various physiological, cognitive and behavioral changes  Body reacts to stressors whether they are conscious or not  Beliefs and expectations play a role in the intensity and character of people's methods of coping with stressors  Stressors: any adverse or challenging event (physiological / psychosocial)  factors that cause stress - noise, pain, violence, job stress  Profession Robert Sapolsky: humans are the only species who can imagine stressors  Stress Response: physiological / Psychological changes - increase of stress hormones and distress  Stress Experience: perception of the situation and how to deal with it  Not necessarily a conscious experience  Acute stressors: appear suddenly  Don't last long  Calls for immediate attention  e.g. physical injury / predator attack  Body moves in a state of alert to deal with the stress, then eventually returning to homeostasis  Homeostasis: balance between external environment and body's normal physiological state  Chronic stressors: last for a long time  Constant source of worry  Dangerous  Affecting body in many damaging ways  Rise in stress hormone cortisol  Body does not return to homeostasis because stressor is constantly present (whether real / imagined) Work Stressors  Work related stress arise if there is a mismatch between demands made on a person and their ability to cope with these demands  e.g. they don’t have enough time, therefore they do not have the necessary support / no control on how to handle their job  Examples of main work stressors  Monotonous, unpleasant, meaningless tasks  Working under time pressure  Long working hours  Poor leadership, poor communication  No recognition or reward for good job performance  Stressful changes in daily routines  Life events influence health - increased physical illness following the stressful event  Correlation found between high ratings of stress life events and subsequent illness Discuss physiological, psychological and social aspects of stress  Stress arise when people perceive a discrepancy between the demands of a situation and their perception of their own resources  Perception may be unrealistic  The way that the individual evaluates the situation has an impact on the way that they confront the stressful situation Steptoe and Marmot  Aim: differences in physiological stress responses to a number of stressors  Method: seven questionnaires, each related to a different stressor  Blood samples were taken (physiological measure for stress - cholesterol)  Job, environmental, neighborhood, housing, economic, social support, loneliness  Results: person scoring high on one stressor did not necessarily have high score in another  Participants who had high mean score on all seven stressors had blood tests indicating high-risk group for developing heart problems  Relationship seen in terms of psychological effects of stress  Depression, anxiety, and low quality of life  Evaluation: stress research must focus on specific stressors in isolation as well as combination of stressors  Accumulated effect of several stressors may put individuals at increased risk Physiological Aspects of stress  Physiological changes of the sympathetic nervous system prepares individuals to confrot / escape from the source of stress  Flight or fight  Body stress response is aroused  Increase blood pressure  Provide glucose to the muscles  Adrenal glands release stress hormones  General Adaptaion Syndrome  Three stages in stress process  Initial stage: alarm stage - equivalent of fight or flight response  Second stage: resistance stage - coping, attempting to reverse effects of alarm stage  Third stage: exhaustion - reached after individual has been exposed to stressors and is incapable of further coping  Explains the fatigue that people feel after long term stress  Weakness: psychological factors play minor role in the model  Long term stress causes increase in cortisol leads to depression / memory problems  Also affecting immune system  Makes individuals more susceptible to infection  Decrease in number of natural killer cells (T-cells)  Kiecolt-Glaser et al. 1984:  Aim: investigating changes in the number of T-cells before and after a stressful period of exams  Method: analyze blood samples from volunteer medical students a month and on the first day of their final exams  Also completing scales of life events, bodily symptoms, and satisfaction with interpersonal contacts second blood sample had significant decrease in the amount of T-cell activity  Results:  Conclusion: high stress diminished the effectiveness of the immune system  Students scoring high on stressful life events and loneliness had lower T cell counts than the low scorers  Psychological stress influences immune system  Loneliness increase effects of stress Cognitive Aspects of Stress  Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI): assumption that an individual's psychological state can influence the immune system via the nervous system  Scientific basis for positive thinking  Cognitive appraisal seems to predict health outcomes (as people predict positive or negative outcomes of a disease)  Reed et al 1999: HIV positive people with more pessimistic expectations : develop HIV related symptoms more quickly  They die of AIDS sooner  Expectations also seem to predict some of the immune changes associated with the disease  Kemeny et al. 2006: possibility that pessimistic expectations lead to people giving up, hence influencing their immune system  Kamen and Seligman  Attribution style (pessimistic / optimistic approach to life) can predict poor health later in life  Pessimism may be related to health through decrease in T-cells and suppression in immune system  Direct effect of attribution style and beliefs on the body  Greer et al 1979 Denial and a fighting spirit predicted longer survival for breast cancer   Link between beliefs and physiology  Not that optimism can cure cancer  But people can cope with cancer in a way that prolongs their life as optimistic patients  Social self-preservation theory  Threat's to one's social self / esteem / status are associated with specific negative cognitive and affective responses  Shame, humiliation  Threats can influence physical health  Through immune system / increase levels of cortisol  HIV infection often occurs in stigmatized groups (gay / bisexual men / drug abusers)  Stigmatizing sexually transmitted disease  HIV positive gay and bisexual men who are particularly sensitive to rejection related to their sexuality show more rapid progression of the disease than those who are less sensitive to such social-self threats  Predict that biological responses to stress are mediated by self-conscious emotions Social Aspects  Humans are dependent on others  Well-being is easily threatened if social relationships are stressful  social stressors:  Being bullied  Abuse in the family  Living in violent neighborhood  Stress can be alleviated through social support  Through good friends / family  Early family environment + cultural norms provide decent groundwork for social competence  Warm + nurturing families - teaches children how to manage stress effectively  Observes role models  Develop necessary social skills needed in positive social interactions  Smith et al 1992  Adults whose interpersonal interactions marked with hostility & cynicism less likely to report having social support  Negative style - early experiences in family that were unsupportive / many conflicts Evaluate strategies for coping with stress  Coping: efforts to deal with a threat in order to remove it or diminish its impact on the person  The way that the individual evaluates the situation has an impact on the way that they confront the stressful situation Transactional model of stress  By lazarus and Folkman  Assumption that stress involves transaction between individual and external world  Only potentially stressful if the event is perceived as stressful that a stress response is drawn out  Introduces importance of psychological factors  Appraisal: referral to cognitive and emotional evaluation  Primary appraisal  Event is judged to be either irrelevant, positive, or negative to one's well-being  Secondary appraisal  Different relevant coping strategies are considered before choosing a way to deal effectively with the stressor  Confidence / doubt are considered  These 2 appraisal processes influence each other  They are continuous and interdependent  People may reappraise situation and their strategies in order to choose a new and more efficient way of coping  Folkman and Lazarus  Two main ways of coping with stress  Difficult to distinguish between the 2 ways of coping  2 kinds of coping influence each other Problem-focused coping  Dealing with the stressor itself  Change the problematic situation  More likely to happen if the person feels they can control the stressor  May end in reduction of unpleasant emotions Emotion-focused coping  Handle the emotional aspects of stress rather than changing the situation  Movies, relaxation exercises, social support, drugs  More likely in cases where people feel they have little control over the stressor Situation perceived as one that has to be endured   Someone passed away - result in emotion-focused  Reduce tension, result in in effective problem-focused coping  Avoidance coping: Drowning sorrows in alcohol may be affective in the short run Ineffective in long term - people developing addictions   Aim of this to avoid negative feelings associated with stressor  Proactive coping: intended to avoid a stressful avoidance  e.g. studying hard for an exam to avoid the stress of failing Ursin and Erison  People benefit positively and experience lower levels of stress if they do things to reduce their stress  If people believe they can manage it, the stress is less intensive and is shorter  Implications for reducing risk factors in health  Explains how taking yoga classes can reduce stress  Relationship between stress and heart disease Social Support as a coping strategy  Social Support: experience that one is part of a social network  Mutual assistance and obligations  One is cared for by others  Can come from partner, relatives, friends, or various social support groups  Emotional support: warmth and understanding  Informational support: helping a person to understand and cope better during their stressful times  Practical support: tangible help, money  Strengthens personal relationships  Provides sense of purpose  Shows that one is important to others  Just "knowing" that you can get support from your network may be most important factor in the beneficial effects of social support  Promote well-being  Taylor 2002:  Aim: whether there's a difference with gender and social support  Method: meta-analysis research of stress and coping  Results: there is a gender difference in relation to social support  Women had more social support to others  Drawing on socially supportive networks more consistently in times of stress  More benefited by social support  Conclusion: theory of "tend and befriend"  Due to evolution, males and females have different stress responses - adaptive for sex  Male: exhibit flight/fight response - triggered by testosterone  Female - exhibit tender-befriend response - triggered by oxytocin  Tend: nurturing activities  Befriend: seeking social support  Thoits: women are more involved than men in giving and receiving social support Throughout life span, women use social support especially from other women in times of stress   Belle 1987: adult women maintained more same-sex close relationships than men  Immobilizing more social support in times of stress than men  More benefit from contacts with female friends and relatives, providing more social support than men  Taylor 2008: culture may moderate how social support is perceived  One dimension of culture - independence (Western cultures)  Individualistic cultures  Another dimension of culture - interdependence (Asian cultures)  Collectivistic cultures  Perceive individual as a part of the social group  Implications for seeking social support  Taylor 2004:  Aim: find out whether different cultures coped differently to stress  Method: students throughout Europe, US and Korea were asked about how they cope with stress  Results: significantly low number of Korean students that use social support to cope  Conclusion: hypothesis that Asian concerns about disruption of harmony in a group / social criticism or losing face  Number of self-help groups for people with HIV, cancer, obesity / alcoholism has increase  Davison et al 2000: white people and women are more likely to participate in such groups  Purpose of the groups: share experience  Help each other face problems  Increase importance of internet-based social support group  They can be people without a network Additional source of support   Provides people with the sense that they are doing something  Klemm et al 1999:  Aim: gender differences on posting on social group websites  Method: content analysis of internet based cancer support groups - breast and prostate cancer  Content analysis: studying content of communication through books, paintings, websites, etc  Results: 80% people were seeking information, encouragement, support  Women more than twice as likely to provide encouragement and support  Men were more than twice as likely to provide information  Wenzelberg et al 2003:  Aim: evaluating the beneficial effects of online support groups  Method: controlled experiment, randomly assigning 72 breast cancer patients to a 12 week web based social support group  They were told that the purpose of intervention was psychoeducational  Group was not an alternative to psychotherapy  Results: web-based program was moderately effective in reducing participants scores on perceived stress and depression  Evaluation: ethical issues - privacy of the participants  Securing participants confidentiality is important in groups like these Mindfulness stress reduction  People worry too much about the past / future  Doing too much  Keep thinking about what's next  Mind is related to body; relaxation and learning to relax and concentrate on one thing at a time could reduce stress  Originated from Buddhist teachings  Training in meditation  Cultivate mindfulness (awareness that emerges through paying attention on purpose in the present moment, and non-judgmentally to the unfolding of experience moment by moment)  MBSR mindfulness based stress reduction aims to teach people how to approach stressful situations mindfully  Respond to the situation instead of reacting to it immediately  Individual can develop the ability to calmly step back from their thoughts and feelings during stressful situations instead of engaging negative thinking patterns That may escalate various stress responses  Core practises of the MBSR  Listening to audiocassettes to guide them to meditate at home Encouraged to bring mindfullness into everyday lives from the beginning of the course   Person is constantly asked to focus on the present moment and to be aware of that  Body scan  Daily home practice for first two weeks  Performed lying down  Eyes closed - directing attention to different parts of the body from head to toe  Instructed to stay awake  Experience and accept whatever sensation comes to them  Leads to deep sense of relaxation  Yoga exercises  Awareness of body's different sensations; including tension and relaxation  Helps people identify physical signs of stress sooner  Sitting meditation  Sitting in up right relaxed poster, eyes closed  Attention focused on physical sensation of breathing  Focus on breath to let it flow freely  Allow mind to wander at will  Awareness includs attention of the body  Sound of breathing, sensation of skin, no feelings / thoughts / judging  Participant learning to accept the wandering mind  Paying attention to breathing all together Evaluation of the MBSR method  Shapiro et al 1998  Aim: test whether the MBSR method was efficient  Method: premedical students who were offered a MBSR course (37) or on the waiting list to be in the MBSR course (36)  Equal numbers of males and females  Participants filled out self-report questionnaire assessing stress at the start of the term (before the course) and during exams at the end of the term (after the course)  Designer to coincide with exams ; high-stress period  Fill out questionnaire on empathy  Results: no difference between two groups at the beginning of the term  Waiting list expressed more anxiety than those who had MBSR classes  MBSR course participants scored higher on empathy questionnaire than controls; and they were less depressed and had fewer symptoms of psychological distress  Conclusion: course has taught them to cope effectively with the stress of exams  Evaluation: they cannot be generalized - medical students  Self selected sample too  They were offered course credits to participate - low drop out numbers  Speca et al 2000  Aim: whether cancer patients would benefit from MBSR  Method: controlled test with cancer patients who were interested in taking MBSR course.  2 groups: experimental and waiting list (control)  Stress symptom questionnaire  Results: experimental group had reduction in total mood disturbance (anxiety, anger, depression) by 65% Reduction in 35% in stress symptoms too   Time spent meditating correlated positively with improvements in mood  No change in average score of control group over same period  Conclusion: MBSR has therapeutic effect  Evaluation: effect was due to social desirability effects  Play a role in patient's self-reports on mood and stress changes  They might want to show that they’ve accomplished something after the treatment  Cost and time efficient Yoga  Yoga is breathing,  Awareness/presence/negativity  Re-focuses Need to meditate to clarity and focus to the mind   Fluctuations when there is a want from the future/creates worry  When in the present we feel calm and at peace  Breathing help us stay in the present  Two types of yoga- mindfulness and yoga itself  Breathing changes the speed of the heart, and the breathing Evaluation of yoga  People think that yoga is all about physical – its about breathe and awareness and self integrity  Barriers, people thinking that they cant do it  Takes time  Drugs may  Willingness to give it a go  Stereotypical image of yoga for women  India orientated  Money  Hong Kong might not subsidize free drugs as compared to UK  The whole research evidence is quite new  Only now the mindfulness yoga is coming into play  Scientific evidence is all new, we’re getting used to it all  More research needs to be done for us to understand it better  You need to be willing, happy, acknowledging it Explain factors related to the development of substance abuse or addictive behavior  Substance: anything that people ingest to later mood, cognition or behavior  Substance Use: consumption or use of any substance (alcohol, nicotine)  Substance Addiction: characterized by continued use of the substance, despite knowing about problems associated with the substance; persistent desire and or unsuccessful effort to control substance  Types of addiction  Psychological addiction: craving, strong desire to smoke  Situations associated with smoking, as well as the smoker's mood and psychological state triggers the craving.  e.g. after a meal, when talking on the phone  Physiological addiction : symptoms such as tolerance  Person needs more drugs to achieve same effect  Withdrawal symptoms if substance not taken  e.g. nausea, irritability, anxiety, difficulty, concentrating, increased appetite  People use a range of substances in hope of an effect  Inducing self-confidence  Having fun  Relaxing  Withdrawal symptoms after long-term use  Addiction: individual cannot control his or her behavior  Behavioral and other responses that always include a compulsion to use the substance continuously in order to experience the psychological and physiological effects to avoid discomfort in its absence  Not only related to drugs  Alcohol, sex, gambling, shopping, internet  59% UK British smokers said it would be difficult to not smoke for a day  General decrease life expectancy for smokers  Predictive of lung cancer  Many people still smoke despite its effects Biological Factors related to Smoking  Active ingredient in tobacco - nicotine  Psychoactive drug  Inhaling tobacco smoke - average smoker takes 1-2mg nicotine per cigarette  Effects of nicotine  Stimulate adrenaline release - increase heart rate and blood pressure  Stimulate dopamine release in brain's reward circuits  Brief feeling of pressure  Pleasant feeling causes smoker to continue smoking to maintain pleasurable effects and prevent withdrawal symptoms  Acts on acetylcholine receptors in the brain  As a natural neurotransmitter  Repeated smoking -> brain adapting to what it regards as normal levels of acetylcholine to restore balance  Nicotine may be as addictive as heroin and cocaine  Once addicted, they will experience withdrawal symptoms when the level of nicotine is not constant  Starting smoking at a young age increases lung cancer chances  More likely to become addicted  Young brain is particularly vulnerable to addictive effects of nicotine  DiFranza et al:  Aim: find out whether people get addicted to cigarettes  Method: longitudinal study of 217 adolescents (mean age of 12) in US  Mostly European American that have inhaled a cigarette at least once  They performed psychological evaluations and reported history of tobacco use  Answered questions about attitudes and beliefs, social environment, family and community  11 interviewed  Assessing tobacco dependence based on reported cravings, time devoted to smoking and inability to quit  Results: adolescents who h
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 3170

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit