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Final Exam Short Answer Notes – PSYC 3170 Health Psychology.docx

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PSYC 3170
Jennifer Mills

Final Exam Short Answer Notes – PSYC 3170 Health Psychology Trend of diseases – people previously died of acute infections (pneumonia, influenza, tuberculosis) Now diseases are chronic, result from behaviour and lifestyle Chronic diseases are costly, and lead to decline in quality of life World Organization Definition of Health  A complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity Biomedical Model  Dominant paradigm of the medical profession  Reductionistic o Reduces humans to biological component o Illness is caused by biochemical imbalances and/or neurophysiological abnormalities  Single-factor o ONLY biological factors are considered  Mechanistic o The body is treated like a machine o Fixed by removing or replacing the ailing part or destroying the foreign body that is causing the problem  Model is problematic  People are exposed to the same virus but have different symptoms and progression of disease  Diseases vary with individuals Evolving View of Diseases  Anatomical pathology o Disease is localized in anatomy (16 to 18 century)  Tissue pathology o Specific tissues could become disease while others remain healthy (late 1800s)  Cellular pathology o Life resides in cells, so cells must be the place to look for disease (19 century)  Germ theory o Particles in the air that cannot be seen (bacteria) that can cause disease  Magic bullet is the idea that medicine has cures that can restore a person to perfect health in one shot The Biopsychosocial Model  View of health that incorporates biological, psychological, and social factors 1  Multidimensional  Psychological component includes o Behaviours (adoption and maintenance) o Emotions (feelings) o Cognitions (thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, schemas) o Personality (characteristic ways of thinking and feeling)  Prevention and treatment efforts should consider all three factors Health Psychology  The study of behavioural, cognitive, and emotional factors that influence o Maintenance of health o Development of illness and disease o Course of illness or disease o Patient’s and family’s response to illness and disease Smoking  Varies with age, but majority of heavy smokers begin before age 20  More men smoke than women, but gender gap is narrowing o More men quitting, more women starting  Lower educated and lower SES – more likely to begin smoking, less likely to quit  Indirect routes o Heredity o Like the taste o Social traits  Direct routes o Affects strength of physical addiction o Immediate effect of nicotine from first hit  Nicotine effects o Increase BP o Decreases body temperature o Gastric emptying o Immediate effects can become long term o Immune system depletes o Can have positive effects on memory, attention, vision  Hard to quit as nicotine has major impact on cognition and emotions  Smoking is not enjoyable at the start  Factors that lead to beginning smoking o Modeling and peer pressure o Personal characteristics (rebellious) o Social image (looks cool)  Becomes habitual, has positive effects and removes negative effects  Positive correlation between stress and smoking (not sure what causes what)  Aboriginal youth get mixed messages about smoking 2  Easy to obtain contraband cigarettes, buy and smoke more  Treatments to quit smoking o Nicotine drugs o Behavioural methods o Self-monitoring  Track behaviour o Stimulus control  Address triggers, alter environment to prevent cues o Response substitution  Eat or shower instead of smoke o Behavioural contracting  Punishments and rewards Anorexia Nervosa  Suppressing drive to eat  Relentless pursuit of thinness  Food takes on moral values – eat good thing, good person. Bad thing, bad person Bulimia Nervosa  Recurrent episodes of binge eating  Lack of control over eating during the episode of binge eating Cognitive-Behavioural Assessment 1. Identify the problem 2. Prioritize the problem 3. Select the target problem 4. Measure and analyze the problem 5. Develop treatment goals 6. Match treatment to client 7. Assess ongoing therapy Treatment Options  Self-monitoring  Psychoeducation  Relaxation training  Biofeedback training Transtheoretical Model  The transtheoretical model of behaviour change acknowledges that changing a bad health habit may not take place all at once by addressing the process or stages of behaviour change  This model accounts for and analyzes the stages of change that people go through at they attempt to change a health behaviour, and suggests treatment goals and interventions for each stage 3 1. Precontemplation  Occurs when a person has no intention of changing his behaviour  May not even be aware they have a problem 2. Contemplation  People are aware the problem exists and are thinking about it  Have not made a commitment to take action 3. Preparation  Individual intends to change their behaviour but have not begun to do so  May be because have been unsuccessful in the past, want to get through stressful period first  May have modified behaviour somewhat, such as smoking less 4. Action  Modify behaviour to overcome problem 5. Maintenance  Work to prevent relapse  If remain free of behaviour for more than six months, he or she is assumed to be in the maintenance stage Set-Point Theory of Body Weight Regulation  Biologically preferred weight and body fat level  May not be the same as one’s preferred weight  More of a range than a set point  Combination of genetics and eating habits Basal Metabolic Rate  Minimal level of energy that your body requires to maintain its vital functions in a waking state  Need more than your BMR if you intend to do anything other than lying around  BMR declines with age, no longer growing. Peaks at puberty  Exposure to cold, BMR goes up, body becomes self-generating furnaces Addictions Model of Obesity  Food as a drug  Effects on dopamine pathway  Activates same reward pathway, some people more sensitive to reward The Social Context of Weight Status  Easy to be overweight in our culture  BMI is a rough estimate of a persons size or shape  Formula that someone made, no consensus on what ideal range is  Doesn’t take in to account body composition, someone who is muscular would be considered overweight 4  No causation has been proven between obesity and longevity  Protective factors of overweight mostly ignored  Selective citations  Look more for unhealthy factors in obese  Dieting is an ineffective treatment for obesity  Dieting may do more harm than good  Only way to lose weight is through exercise and restricting caloric intake consistently Stress  Acute stress – sudden, typically short-lived, threatening event  Chronic stress – ongoing environmental demand  Fight or flight response Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome  Perceived stressor leads to general adaptation  Alarm reaction – fight or flight  Resistance – arousal high as body tries to defend and adapt  Exhaustion – limited physical resources; resistance to disease  Criticized because it assigns little role to psychological factors  Not all stressors have been found to produce the same stress response  Not everyone exhibits the same stress response Cognitive Model of Stress  Primary appraisal- what does this event mean to me? Will I be in trouble?  If stressful evaluate further o Harm – amount of damage o Threat – expectation for future harm o Challenge – opportunity to achieve growth, mastery, or profit  Secondary appraisal – do I have the resources to deal effectively with this stressor? Situational Factors Affecting Stress Appraisals  Demands  Imminence  Life transition  Timing  Ambiguity  Desirability  Controllability  Stress is cumulative  Stressors can affect a person even withou
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