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Psych 3170 Midterm 2 notes.docx

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York University
PSYC 3170
Gerry Goldberg

Midterm 2 Notes Chapter 6: Stress acute stress A laboratory procedure whereby an individual goes through moderately stressful paradigm procedures (such as counting backwards rapidly by 7s), so that stress-related changes in emotions and physiological and/or neuroendocrine processes may be assessed. (See page(s) 164) after-effects of Performance and attentional decrements that occur after a stressful event has stress subsided; believed to be produced by the residual physiological, emotional, and cognitive draining in response to stressful events. (See page(s) 161) allostatic load The accumulating adverse effects of stress, in conjunction with pre-existing risks, on biological stress regulatory systems. (See page(s) 158) chronic strain A stressful experience that is a usual but continually stressful aspect of life. (See page(s) 160) daily hassles Minor daily stressful events; believed to have a cumulative effect in increasing the likelihood of illness. (See page(s) 167) fight-or-flight A response to threat in which the body is rapidly aroused and motivated via the response sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system to attack or flee a threatening stimulus; the response was first described by Walter Cannon in 1932. (See page(s) 151) general Developed by Hans Selye, a profile of how organisms respond to stress; the adaptation general adaptation syndrome is characterized by three phases: a nonspecific syndrome mobilization phase, which promotes sympathetic nervous system activity; a resistance phase, during which the organism makes efforts to cope with the threat; and an exhaustion phase, which occurs if the organism fails to overcome the threat and depletes its physiological resources. (See page(s) 152) perceived stress The perception that an event is stressful independent of its objective characteristics. (See page(s) 168) person- The degree to which the needs and resources of a person and the needs and environment fit resources of an environment complement each other. Whether personal resources are sufficient to meet the demands of the environment. (See page(s) 151) post-traumatic A syndrome that results after exposure to a stressor of extreme magnitude, stress disorder marked by emotional numbing, the reliving of aspects of the trauma, intense (PTSD) responses to other stressful events, and other symptoms, such as hyperalertness, sleep disturbance, guilt, or impaired memory or concentration. (See page(s) 162) primary The perception of a new or changing environment as beneficial, neutral, or appraisal negative in its consequences; believed to be a first step in stress and coping. (See page(s) 153) * Psychological view by Lazarus. reactivity The predisposition to react physiologically to stress; believed to be genetically based in part; high reactivity is believed to be a risk factor for a range of stress- related diseases. (See page(s) 157) role conflict Conflict that occurs when two or more social or occupational roles that an individual occupies produce conflicting standards for behaviour. (See page(s) 174) secondary The assessment of ones coping abilities and resources and judgment as to appraisal whether they will be sufficient to meet the harm, threat, or challenge of a new or changing event. (See page(s) 154) stress Appraising events as harmful, threatening, or challenging and assessing ones capacity to respond to those events; events that are perceived to tax or exceed ones resources are seen as stressful. (See page(s) 151) stressful life Events that force an individual to make changes in his or her life. events (See page(s) 165) stressors Events perceived to be stressful. Example losing a job. (See page(s) 151) tend-and- A theory of responses to stress that maintains that, in addition to fight-or-flight, befriend humans respond to stress with social and nurturant behaviour; these responses may be especially true of women (Taylor et al) (See page(s) 153) work-life The concept of managing multiple roles simultaneously in ones life; most adults balance are workers, partners, and parents, and each of these roles entails heavy, and potential stressful, obligations. (See page(s) 176) Chapter 7: Moderators of the Stress Experience approach The tendency to cope with stressful events by tackling them directly and (confrontative, or attempting to develop solutions; may ultimately be an especially effective vigilant) coping style method of coping, although it may produce accompanying distress. (See page(s) 189) avoidant (minimizing) The tendency to cope with threatening events by withdrawing, minimizing, coping style or avoiding them; believed to be an effective short-term, though not an effective long-term, response to stress. (See page(s) 189) buffering hypothesis The hypothesis that coping resources are useful primarily under conditions of high stress and not necessarily under conditions of low stress. (See page(s) 199) control-enhancing Interventions with patients who are awaiting treatment for the purpose of interventions enhancing their perceptions of control over those treatments. (See page(s) 187) coping The process of trying to manage demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding ones resources. (See page(s) 181) coping outcomes The beneficial effects that are thought to result from successful coping; these include reducing stress, adjusting more successfully to it, maintaining emotional equilibrium, having satisfying relationships with others, and maintaining a positive self-image.(See page(s) 195) coping style An individuals preferred method of dealing with stressful situations. (See page(s) 189) direct effects The theory that coping resources, such as social support, have beneficial hypothesis psychological and health effects under conditions of both high stress and low stress. (See page(s) 199) dispositional optimism A general expectancy that good things, not bad, will happen in the future. (See page(s) 184) emotion-focused An effort to regulate emotions experienced because of a stressful event; coping emotion-focused coping skills develop in late childhood or early adolescence. (See page(s) 189) emotional support Indications from other people that one is loved, valued, and cared for; believed to be an important aspect of social support during times of stress. (See page(s) 195) informational support The provision of information to a person going through stress by friends, family, and other people in the individuals social network; believed to help reduce the distressing and health-compromising effects of stress. (See page(s) 195) invisible support When one receives help from another, but is unaware of it; support that is most likely to benefit a person. (See page(s) 196) matching hypothesis The hypothesis that social support is helpful to an individual to the extent that th
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