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Midterm

KEY TERMS PSYCH 3170 MIDTERM 1.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3170
Professor
Gerry Goldberg
Semester
Winter

Description
KEY TERMS PSYCH 3170 MIDTERM 1 Chapter 1 acute disorders Illnesses or other medical problems that occur over a short period of time, that are usually the result of an infectious process, and that are reversible. (See page(s) 9) biomedical The viewpoint that illness can be explained on the basis of aberrant model somatic processes and that psychological and social processes are largely independent of the disease process; the dominant model in medical practice until recently. (See page(s) 7) biopsychosocial The view that biological, psychological, and social factors are all model involved in any given state of health or illness. (See page(s) 7) chronic Illnesses that are long lasting, are the main contributors to disability illnesses and death, and are usually irreversible. (See page(s) 10) conversion The viewpoint, originally advanced by Freud, that specific unconscious hysteria conflicts can produce physical disturbances symbolic of the repressed conflict; no longer a dominant viewpoint in health psychology. (See page(s) 5) correlational Measuring two variables and determining whether they are associated research with each other. Studies relating smoking to lung cancer are correlational, for example. (See page(s) 14) epidemiology The study of the frequency, distribution, and causes of infectious and noninfectious disease in a population, based on an investigation of the physical and social environment. Thus, for example, epidemiologists not only study who has what kind of cancer but also address questions such as why certain cancers are more prevalent in particular geographic areas. (See page(s) 11) etiology The origins and causes of illness. (See page(s) 4) experiment A type of research in which a researcher randomly assigns people to two or more conditions, varies the treatments that people in each condition are given, and then measures the effect on some response. (See page(s) 14) health The absence of disease or infirmity, coupled with a complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being; health psychologists recognize health to be a state that is actively achieved rather than the mere absence of illness. (See page(s) 4) health The subarea within psychology devoted to understanding psychological psychology influences on health, illness, and responses to those states, as well as the psychological origins and impacts of health policy and health interventions. (See page(s) 4) longitudinal The repeated observation and measurement of the same individuals research over a period of time. (See page(s) 15) mind-body The philosophical position regarding whether the mind and body relationship operate indistinguishably as a single system or whether they act as two separate systems; the view guiding health psychology is that the mind and body are indistinguishable. (See page(s) 4) morbidity The number of cases of a disease that exist at a given point in time; it may be expressed as the number of new cases (incidence) or as the total number of existing cases (prevalence). (See page(s) 11) mortality The number of deaths due to particular causes. (See page(s) 11) prospective A research strategy in which people are followed forward in time to research examine the relationship between one set of variables and later occurrences. For example, prospective research can enable researchers to identify risk factors for diseases that develop at a later point in time. (See page(s) 15) psychosomatic A field within psychiatry, related to health psychology, that developed medicine in the early 1900s to study and treat particular diseases believed to be caused by emotional conflicts, such as ulcers, hypertension, and asthma. The term is now used more broadly to mean an approach to health-related problems and diseases that examines psychological as well as somatic origins. (See page(s) 6) retrospective A research strategy whereby people are studied for the relationship of research past variables or conditions to current ones. Interviewing people with a particular disease and asking them about their childhood health behaviours or exposure to risks can identify conditions leading to an adult disease, for example. (See page(s) 15) systems theory The viewpoint that all levels of an organization in any entity are linked to each other hierarchically and that change in any level will bring about change in other levels. (See page(s) 8) Chapter 2 adrenal glands Two small glands, located on top of the kidneys, that are part of the endocrine system and secrete several hormones, including cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, that are involved in responses to stress. (See page(s) 24) angina pectoris Chest pain that occurs because the muscle tissue of the heart is deprived of adequate oxygen or because removal of carbon dioxide and other wastes interferes with the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart. (See page(s) 26) atherosclerosis A major cause of heart disease; caused by the narrowing of the arterial walls due to the formation of plaques that reduce the flow of blood through the arteries and interfere with the passage of nutrients from the capillaries into the cells. (See page(s) 26) autoimmunity A condition in which the body produces an immune response against its own tissue constituents- produces antibodies to fight it. (See page(s) 42) blood pressure The force that blood exerts against vessel walls. (See page(s) 27) - Chronically high blood pressure, called hypertension, is the consequence of too high a cardiac output or too high a peripheral resistance. - Platelets- They clump together to block small holes that develop in blood vessels and play an important role in blood clotting- helps when an injury occurs and tissues are damaged- produces clotting to stop the bleeding. cardiovascular The transport system of the body responsible for carrying oxygen and system nutrients to the body and carrying away carbon dioxide and other wastes to the kidneys for excretion; composed of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. (See page(s) 25) catecholamines The neurotransmitters, epinephrine and norepinephrine, that promote sympathetic nervous system activity; released in substantial quantities during stressful times. (See page(s) 22) cell-mediated Slow acting immune response, involving T lymphocytes, that operates immunity at the cellular level-when stimulated by the appropriate antigen, T cells secrete chemicals that kill invading organisms and infected cells. (See page(s) 40) cerebellum The part of the hindbrain responsible for the coordination of voluntary muscle movement, the maintenance of balance and equilibrium, and the maintenance of muscle tone and posture. (See page(s) 20) cerebral cortex The main portion of the brain, responsible for intelligence, memory, and
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