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PSYC 3250 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Posterior Cerebral Artery, Anterior Cerebral Artery, Middle Cerebral Artery

Course Code
PSYC 3250
J De Souza
Study Guide

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All readings listed for the first 4 topics on the syllabus:
Chapter 3: pp. 51-88
Chapter 1: 2-30
Chapter 2: 39-50
Chapter 6: pp. 145-165
Chapter 7: pp. 178-207
Chapter 10: pp. 265-301
All lecture content up to and including Implicit & Explicit Memory (Amnesic Syndromes):
- all slides up to page 16 on the 3-slide handout
Vertrebral arteries can compensate if there is carotid artery damage, however there are cognitive deficits due to reduced blood flow
to the brain
Transitic schemic attacks (little mini strokes) can block carotid artery
80% of the blood flowing to the brain goes through carotid artery!
Middle cerebral artery gets to most of the lateral brain (language, orbitofrontal damage)
Anterior cerebral artery gets to the superior lateral brain and the superior medial brain (EF, contralateral movement problems)
Posterior cerebral artery gets to most of the posterior part of the brain (vision) as well as memory
Egyptians: cardiocentrism (heart significant for mental life)
Ancient Greece: cerebrocentrism (brain significant for mental life)
Renaissance: mind/body issue (ventricular activities more important than brain substance
19th century: localism/holism debate
Four eras of investigation:
Neural substrates
Cognitive function
2 conceptual approaches
Variability (biodata, experiences before and after, extent and origin of lesion)
Straightforward inferences lead to inaccurate conclusions
2 limitations
Planned lesions via epilepsy patients
Lesion method
Localization of function vs. mass action
Their repertoire of behaviour and the organization of their brains may differ from those of humans
Problems with extrapolating experimental data from animal studies
Broca's aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia
Medial temporal lobe damage = poor episodic memory but good semantic memory
Lateral temporal lobe damage = good episodic memory but poor semantic memory
Episodic memory and Semantic memory
Double dissociation
More likely to occur if the damaged brain region has many nerve fiber tracts and few cell bodies
Info can't be transmitted from one region to another
Disconnection syndrome
Single: generalizability
Group: obscuring behaviour patterns and misinterpreting data
Single-case studies vs group studies
Variability and average typicality is considered
Multiple-case study approach
Old brain damage appears darker because less CSF
New hemorrhages appear lighter because blood is denser than brain tissue
Cheap, quick, no restrictions
CAT/CT scan
Techniques for assessing brain anatomy (KNOW PAGE 80 in textbook!!!)
February 3, 2016
5:36 PM
Neural Basis of Behaviour Page 1

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Relies on static field, pulse sequence and receiver coil as well as a gradient field
No radiation, better spatial resolution (clarity)
More expensive, not everyone can do it
Recent related method: DTI
Can determine how much of a specific neurotransmitter is being used by a specific brain region
Better temporal resolution, tells us about absolute levels of brain metabolism
Related to SPECT
Uses BOLD signal (blood oxygen level dependent)
Cannot detect neuronal response directly, expensive, not everyone can do it
Better temporal resolution, no radiation, multiple scans can be done per individual
Neuropsychological assessment: tells us how CNS damage has affected cognitive, behavioural and emotional functioning
Neuropsychological test battery: most common one = Halstead-Reitan battery; examines a wide range of abilities via simple tests
Customized neuropsychological assessment: small tests used, hypotheses are formed and then evaluated with specific
neuropsychological tests
Estimate of premorbid functioning: reasonably guessing how well a person performed before injury
Techniques for analyzing behaviour (REVIEW PAGE 83-84)
Blindsight: retaining some visual capabilities without consciously being able to see
Retina: An extension of the brain, back of the eye
Rods > cones
Transform light to electrochemical energy used by nervous system
work best in light
3 different types (short-wavelength, medium wavelength, long wavelength)
Have different pigments
Densely packed on the fovea
only have pigment rhodopsin
work better in dark
Distributed in the periphery
Photoreceptors = rods and cones
More rods per ganglion cells, fewer cones per ganglion cells
Both rods and cones are connected to ganglion cells
Rods and cones = input, ganglion cells = output
Ganglion cell bodies are in the retina, their axons form the optic nerve
Responsive to coarse patterns, rapid motion
M ganglion cells
Responsive to colour info
P ganglion cells
Ganglion cells
specific region of visual space that a particular cell responds to
Helps enhance contrast
Center-surround structure: light in a particular spot will excite ganglion cell, however light in the encircling area of that spot will
actually inhibit the cell
Receptive field
Allows people to orient to important visual info quickly
Pathway extends upstream from superior colliculus to the pulvinar nucleus in the thalamus and cortical areas
Tectopulvinar path
Enables conscious seeing
Important for identifying objects and details
Allows us to perceive fine grained features and colour
Geniculostriate pathway
Magnocellular layer: receives input from M ganglion cells; important for motion perception
Parvocellular layer: receives input from P ganglion cells; important for colour and form perception
Has 2 types of layers: magnocellular and parvocellular layers
Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)= complex at which the optic nerve terminates in the thalamus
Optic chiasm= crossover point where some info must cross over from left eye to right side of the brain and right eye to left side of the
Responsive to bars of light oriented in specific ways
Cells within a cortical column tend to respond best to the same line orientation and spatial location as one another
Striate cortex cells
Primary visual cortex aka striate cortex
Neural Basis of Behaviour Page 2
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