Study Guides (390,000)
CA (150,000)
York (10,000)
PSYC (1,000)
Quiz

PSYC 3260 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Frontal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, Memory Span


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3260
Professor
Norman Park
Study Guide
Quiz

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 8 pages of the document.
Chapter 4Classical research on STM
***number of items stored in STM depends on both chunking strategies and word meaning
Students of memory William James there is a memory system that keeps in consciousness a small # of ideas primary memoryclosely
related to WM than to STM
Capacity of STM measured using a memory-span procedure
o Procedure. Presented sequence of items (starting with 1 itemincreasing it by 1 each time until mistake), then required to repeat them
o Scoring. point participant is able to recall all items correctly 50% of time memory span
o factors affecting memory span
recoding or chunking information; George Miller showed that memory span- determined by # of ‘chunks’ or integrated items you
need to recall, not the number of items presented
Article unusual cause it was a time when behaviourism was popular
ppl engage in internal mental processes in order to convert stimuli into manageable number of chunks
Early Research methods measuring capacity of STM:
The Brown/Peterson and Peterson technique
showed it is possible to induce very rapid forgetting if you distract person
study: present small # of items followed by a number (632). required to count backward by 3s until given recall signal. Then attempts to
recall studied items. Counting prevents rehearsalppl have limited recall after short delay
On first trials they, remember all letterslast trials produced interference and recall was poor
support for the cognitive approach
Inducing rapid forgetting
Note: Murdock (1961) showed performance is abt same for 3 consonants as it is for 3 words, illustrating importance of chunking
why information forgotten in the Brown-Peterson paradigm?
o trace decay: automatic fading of memory
Petersons argued it must be trace decay; it couldn’t be retroactive interference because numbers are very different from consonants
o interference: memory is disrupted by other memory traces
o proactive interference: effects of prior items on recall of subsequent itemspreviously learned material interferes with new learning
Keppel & Underwood (1962) showed PI responsibleif performance on first trial only is examined there is little decline in
performance over the retention interval
Words that are previously stored can interfere with the recall of new words that are similar in meaning (fruits and vegetables)
o retroactive interference: effects of subsequent items on recall of previous items
evidence release from PI-- when category of items is shifted from letters to numbers
o studies -present several lists of items using Brown-Peterson procedure (Study: present list of 3 items; count backwards by 3s Results
show that performance declines across lists (build up of PI)
If you change categories, then performance (recall) increases (release from PI (demonstrated by shifting the semantic category of items)
o Degree of semantic similarity is related to the amount of interference
Serial Position Effect
the U-shaped relationship bw a words position in a list and its probability of recall
Curve shows strong recency effectremember items at end of listitems still in STM at time of recall
measuring STM is to count the number of accurately recalled items at the end of a list
strong primacy effectrecall at beginning of list
o Easy to remember: (1) don’t need to compete with earlier items; (2) ppl rehears these items more frequently
The recency effect in a serial position curve is also used in measuring the limited capacity of STM
Interpretation of free recall study (Craik)
Primacy and intermediate components of the serial position curve are lower in the delayed compared to immediate condition; recency
portion of the curve is differentially lower in the delayed condition
interpretation: delayed condition has a stronger influence on recency portion of curve because recency reflects STM performance
neuropsychological evidence for separation of STM and LTM
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Data from amnesics support the viability of distinction bw STM and LTM because amnesics have normal digit span, which is mediated by
STM, but are impaired in their ability to acquire and retain LTM memories
Free recall data in amnesics also supports this distinction.
Atkinson and shiffrin’s modelMODAL MODEL OF INFO PROCESSING
items in STM can be lost within 30 sec unless repeated
info processing approach(a) mental processes similar to operations of computer; (b) info progresses through cognitive systems in series
of stages one step at a time
MMmem involves sequence of separate stepsin each step, info is transferred to one storage area to another
o distinguishes bw two types of memory: STM and LTM
o External stimuli first enters sensory memorystorage: records info from senses w/ reasonable accuracyinfo stored from 2 sec or less
SM now considered to be the very brief storage process that is part of perception rather than actual mem
o Some info from SM is passed to STMSTMs fragile but not as fragile as SMsome then passed to LTM where decay, interference,
and loss of strength in LTS may occur
o Control processesintentional processes (rehearsal) that ppl use to improve their mem
Problems with modal model
MM assumes that STS plays a critical role in the transfer of info into LTS
o MM suggests that the capacity of STS should determine the probability that an item enters LTS and
o The amount of exposure in STS should affect the likelihood that an item enters into LTS
Both these implications are incorrect
o Studies: under some conditions # of times material is rehearsed is poor predictor that it will be recalled subsequently (shallow
rehearsal)
o Shallice and Warrington some ppl w/ poor memory span (suggests that STS is damaged) have normal LTM
KF memory span WAIS score = 2, Mean = 10, Standard deviation = 3
KF understood spoken words by presenting list of spoken words; task: tap table when words were from a given category
KF impaired when RN STM test administered
Evidence supporting STM vs LTM distinction
o tasks such as free recall seem to have both STM and LTM components
o Neuropsychological evidence suggests that both components can be damaged
amnesics have damaged LTM component, but intact STM component
KF (and others) have damaged STM but intact LTM
MM does have problems accounting for
o the finding that patients with STM deficits appear to have intact LTM
o maintaining an item in STM does not ensure its transfer to LTM
Baddeley and hitch WORKING MEMORY APPROACH
WMbrief immediate mem for limited amt of info currently processing; actively coordinates ongoing (info) mental activites
WM approachmultipart system (can operate independently of each other): temporarily holds/manipulates info while performing cog task
Experimental paradigm (dual task paradigm)evidence for components with independent capacities
o primary task: grammatical reasoningspatial reasoning
Determine whether sentences abt letter order are true/false
e.g., A follows B -- BA (true)
e.g., B is not preceded by A - AB (false)
o secondary task: concurrent digit task: remember number sequences in order ranging in length from 0 to 8
Results:
o reasoning time increased but overall performance remains quite good and errors remained same, even when the overall digit load is 8
(memory span capacity)
o Data contradicts the view that our temporary storage has only about 7 slots as miller proposed
o demonstrated that ppl could perform a verbal task and spatial task simultaneously, w/ min reduction in speed and accuracy on either task
Other results Baddeley, Lewis, Eldridge, & Thomson (1984) showed that:
o a concurrent digit span task had a strong effect on encoding and remembering new material
o however, no effect on accuracy of performance when concurrent digit span task was performed during retrieval (although retrieval
latency was slowed)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

o suggests: the system responsible for holding digits does not play a critical role in retrieval as suggested by previous models of memory
Baddeley proposed to account for these results by postulating that the digit span limitations are set by one system, leaving other components
of WM relatively unimpaired
Basic model of WM consists of a controlling attentional system (central executive) and two slave systems, an articulatory or phonological
loop system and a visuo-spatial sketch pad
proposed: immediate mem is not passive storehouse; resembles a workbench where material is continuously combined and transformed
Phonological loop
Briefly stores and processes limited amt of sounds and maintains info for abt 2 sec; research: items stored in loop can be confused with other
similar sounding itemsused for LTM, self instruction, learning new words, reading, producing language, and solving problems
o self instructionsilently remind yourself abt how to use some complicated equipment
o articulatory control process refreshes items in store by means of subvocal rehearsal
Subvocalizationsilently pronouncing the words you are reading
Mem errors--traced to acoustic confusionslikely to confuse similar sounding stimuliletters that sound same, accuracy of recall is lower
o Confuse acoustically similar sounds w/ one another when rehearsing in loopphenomenon is akin to stumbling on rhyming
tongue twister
poor readers tend to have poor STM span
play a role in the comprehension of language and in the acquisition of vocabulary
Theme 4 states: cog processes are interrelated and do not operate in isolation
Neuroscience research on the loop
Phonological tasks activate left hemisphere of, the frontal (rehearsal) and parietal lobe (storage) left hem processes info related to
languageboth lobes responsible for storing complex lengthy sentances
Left parietal lobe responsible for processing long but simple sentencesstoring
Transcranial magnetic stimulationbriefly stimulate specific cortical location (no surgery)stimulation interferes info processing briefly
Study administered TMS to both left frontal (activated when you rehearse verbal material) and left parietal lobe (activated when you store
auditory info)study also included a sham procedure
Visuospatial Sketchpadvisuospatial WM and ST visual mem
access to this store by visual info is obligatory
Processes & stores both visual and spatial info. Capacity limited; performing 2 visuospatial tasks simultaneously interfere with eachother
gather visual info abt appearance of objects and landmarks & navigate (its relative position in a scene) from one location to another
Ppl can work simultaneously on one phonological task (rehearsing 8 digit number) and one visuospatial task (making judgements abt spatial
location of letters A and B)w/o much alteration in performance
stores visual info that you encode from a verbal description
impossible to perform one task requiring a mental imagewith both visual and spatial components
research on sketchpad
less research: (1) no standardized set of visual stimuli, would be comparable to words we processes using loop; and (2) ppl provide names
for stimuli presented in visual form (beginning around age 8)
maria brandimonteppl had to repeate irrelevant syllable (la-la-la) while looking at complex visual stimulus. repetition occupied the loop
so ppl would not provide names so they used visuospatial coding
right hemisphere, especially occipital region (visual tasksresponsible for visual perception), the frontal and parietal region
ppl mentally rehearse spatial info by shifting selective attention from one location to another in their mental imagethis kind of rehearsal
activates areas in the frontal and parietal lobesthese are the same areas of the cortex that are associated with attention
Central Executive
Integrates info from loop, sketchpad, episodic buffer and LTM. supervisorDoes not store infocannot perform two complex taks
simultaneously; i.e. daydreaming interferes with generating a random number sequence
Role in: focussing attentionplanningselecting strategiestransforming infosuppressing irrelevant infocoordinating behaviour
switching bw taskshelps decide what to do next or what not to dooverall functions of WM (modulate = guide or modify)
Research frontal lobe lesionsActivates various regions in the both sides of frontal lobe
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version