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Cognition Quiz 1.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3260
Professor
Norman Park
Semester
Fall

Description
Cognition Quiz 1  Cognition- mental events that we use to perform tasks as well as the use of prior knowledge  Cognitive psychology- scientific study of thought, language, and the brain  Greek perspective o Brain is the center of human reasoning (Pythagoras and Hippocrates) o The heart is the locus of the soul (Aristotle)  Descartes- mind and body are separate but interact with each other, and mental processes occur in the pineal gland o The body is a machine and can be understood mechanistically  Locke- thought is a series of mental images o Refuted by Berkeley, saying that abstract concepts cannot be conveyed by images  Wundt o Understanding the nature of consciousness o Contents of consciousness can be approached by characterizing basic sensations and feelings and by finding the rules whereby such elements are combined o Mental activity can be broken down into more basic operations o Relied on introspection- the process of internal perception (looking within yourself to assess your mental activity)  Kulpe o Mental images do not always accompany mental activity  James o Functionalist o Focused on functions of specific mental activities in the world o Certain approaches are better than others for accomplishing certain tasks and we should change our thoughts and behaviour as we discover those that are increasingly better adapted to our environment  Gall- anatomist o Brain consists of a number of separate specialized organs o Size of an organ related to the amount of skill a person has o Cognitive functions are localized in particular brain regions o Led to development of phrenology  Broca o Patient Tan-Tan named because after having a stroke he could only say Tan o Understood language but couldn’t produce it o Damage to the frontal lobes on the left side in the inferior region o Logic- in lesion studies look at behaviour and look for areas of strength and areas where function is less o Speech localized in the posterior, inferior region of left frontal lobe o Broca’s aphasia- nonfluent aphasia o Patient comprehends language but cannot produce speech o Demonstrated that left and right hemispheres have different functions  Wernicke o Understanding of speech located in superior posterior parts of temporal lobe o Fluent aphasia- damage to Wernicke’s area produces difficulty with speech comprehension but can produce speech o Therefore, expressive speech mediated by frontal lobe and receptive speech mediated by temporal lobes  Lichtheim o Three critical cognitive functions: center for auditory-word representations (Wernicke’s area), center for motor-word representations (Broca’s area), and a center for elaboration of concepts (semantic memory)  Diagram makers- identify distinct syndromes then attempt to theoretically link the different syndromes  Cognitive revolution o Mind began to be compared to a computing machine o Allowed mental activity to be studied more objectively than did introspection o Reminded researchers that they needed to think about internal events, not just behaviour  Information processing- storage, manipulation, and transformation of information  Morton o Logogen model- information processing model of language o There are logogens, morphemic or meaning units o Lie between lower level perceptual and motor processes o Accumulate information about whether a word is present  Localization critics said that Broca was flawed because his patients had widespread damage, making it more difficult to localize  Pierre Marie looked at Tan Tan's brain and saw that the damage was not localized, widespread damage o Proposed that Tan Tan couldn’t speak because there is a general loss of intellect as a result of widespread brain damage  Language comprehension is more than understanding simple words o Ex. When you make the mistake of talking to someone in French, syntax is also important  Broca and Wernicke were focusing on words but not language and syntax o Didn’t appreciate the complexity of language o They didn’t systematically investigate and observe the phenomenon o Used clinical techniques and characterized patient but did not indicate scientific method o No opportunity to replicate results or accumulate knowledge because everyone is using different methods  Broca’s work attacked because: o Evidence does not support his claim that certain functions can be precisely localized o Psychological concepts were inadequate o Did not carefully and systematically observe patients on which his theories were based  Hughlings-Jackson o Brain function is hierarchically organized and a network o Complex behaviours increase as levels become higher  Luria o Each area of the brain is involved in one of three basic functions (units): o Unit 1- brain stem regulates the arousal of the brain and maintenance of proper muscle tone o Unit 2- posterior area of cortex and is involved in reception, integration, and analysis of information o Unit 3- frontal and prefrontal lobes and is involved in planning, executing, and verifying behaviour o All behaviour is an interaction of these basic functions o Brain plasticity- if there is damage to a particular area, there is the possibility of a different functional system taking over the role previously played by the damaged area  Cognitive psychologists o Specify how information is internally represented o Representation- physical state that conveys information, specifying an object, event, or category or its characteristics o Format- form of a representation o Content- meaning conveyed by a particular representation o Process- transformation of information that obeys well-defined principles to produce a specific output when given a specific input o Mental representations would not represent anything if they did not occur within a processing system o Processing system- set of processes that work together to accomplish a type of task o Algorithm- step-by-step procedure that guarantees that a certain input will produce a certain output o Serial algorithm- sequence of steps, with each depending on the one before o Parallel algorithm- operations that are performed at the same time  Why does understanding cognitive neuropsychology closely connect with cognitive neuroscience? o Similarity between theories proposed by cognitive neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience o Cognitive models are modular in nature o You can find out what modules are by gaining insight into what the neuroscientists have decided them to be  Cognitive neuroscience o Uses knowledge of the brain in theories of processing systems o Focused on understanding the brain itself- what different parts do and how they interact  Why should they be modularly organized? o If you write a software program, it tends to be a modular program o It is easier to program, debug, and modify things if you write code in this manner o Brain function is modular because there is a Darwinian selection that biases modular development o A change in one module in the brain will not disrupt the other regions of the brain or cause them to crash  A complete model should have both a cognitive and neural level of explanation  Identifiability problem o Identifiability- ability to specify the correct combination of representations and processes used to accomplish a task o Possible to construct different models of cognitive behaviour that produce the same set of predictions o Cognitive neuroscience helps identify what the modules are, how the brain does things, and enables us to say that one is neurologically plausible and the other is neurologically compatible with what we know  Sternberg o Method to examine how information is accessed in memory o Hypothesized that people hold lists of items in memory and serially scan these lists o Others said that items can be stored in an unordered collection- instead of searching them one at a time, they could be searched in parallel (all at once)  Structure-process trade-offs o We can change the theory of representation and compensate for that change by altering the theory of the process o The representation and process trade off against each other, with change in one compensating for change in the other  No perfect method in neuroscience  Every method has its limitations  Limitation of one study is a strength for another  Converging evidence- if different methods point to the same conclusion  Limitation of lesion studies o Lesions are not precisely anatomically located o Other parts of the brain can be damaged as well (widespread damage)  Limitation with fMRI and other activation procedures o They simply show patterns of brain activity and behaviour o Only a correlation, doesn’t imply causation  The way to make progress is to use different methods, each having its strengths and limitations  Methods used in neuropsychology o Historically brain lesions and behavioural correlations o Recently, fMRI, neuroimaging, TMS o TMS is more like a lesion study because you're disabling a brain region (strength be
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