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PSYC 3260 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Putamen, Medial Longitudinal Fissure, Neuroblast

Course Code
PSYC 3260
Norman Park
Study Guide

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Cognition Quiz 1
Cognition- mental events that we use to perform tasks as well as the use of prior
Cognitive psychology- scientific study of thought, language, and the brain
Greek perspective
o Brain is the center of human reasoning (Pythagoras and Hippocrates)
o The heart is the locus of the soul (Aristotle)
Descartes- mind and body are separate but interact with each other, and mental
processes occur in the pineal gland
o The body is a machine and can be understood mechanistically
Locke- thought is a series of mental images
o Refuted by Berkeley, saying that abstract concepts cannot be conveyed
by images
o Understanding the nature of consciousness
o Contents of consciousness can be approached by characterizing basic
sensations and feelings and by finding the rules whereby such elements
are combined
o Mental activity can be broken down into more basic operations
o Relied on introspection- the process of internal perception (looking within
yourself to assess your mental activity)
o Mental images do not always accompany mental activity
o Functionalist
o Focused on functions of specific mental activities in the world
o Certain approaches are better than others for accomplishing certain tasks
and we should change our thoughts and behaviour as we discover those
that are increasingly better adapted to our environment
Gall- anatomist
o Brain consists of a number of separate specialized organs
o Size of an organ related to the amount of skill a person has
o Cognitive functions are localized in particular brain regions
o Led to development of phrenology
o Patient Tan-Tan named because after having a stroke he could only say
o Understood language but couldn’t produce it
o Damage to the frontal lobes on the left side in the inferior region
o Logic- in lesion studies look at behaviour and look for areas of strength
and areas where function is less
o Speech localized in the posterior, inferior region of left frontal lobe
o Broca’s aphasia- nonfluent aphasia
o Patient comprehends language but cannot produce speech
o Demonstrated that left and right hemispheres have different functions

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o Understanding of speech located in superior posterior parts of temporal
o Fluent aphasia- damage to Wernicke’s area produces difficulty with
speech comprehension but can produce speech
o Therefore, expressive speech mediated by frontal lobe and receptive
speech mediated by temporal lobes
o Three critical cognitive functions: center for auditory-word representations
(Wernicke’s area), center for motor-word representations (Broca’s area),
and a center for elaboration of concepts (semantic memory)
Diagram makers- identify distinct syndromes then attempt to theoretically link the
different syndromes
Cognitive revolution
o Mind began to be compared to a computing machine
o Allowed mental activity to be studied more objectively than did
o Reminded researchers that they needed to think about internal events, not
just behaviour
Information processing- storage, manipulation, and transformation of information
o Logogen model- information processing model of language
o There are logogens, morphemic or meaning units
o Lie between lower level perceptual and motor processes
o Accumulate information about whether a word is present
Localization critics said that Broca was flawed because his patients had
widespread damage, making it more difficult to localize
Pierre Marie looked at Tan Tan's brain and saw that the damage was not
localized, widespread damage
o Proposed that Tan Tan couldn’t speak because there is a general loss of
intellect as a result of widespread brain damage
Language comprehension is more than understanding simple words
o Ex. When you make the mistake of talking to someone in French, syntax
is also important
Broca and Wernicke were focusing on words but not language and syntax
o Didn’t appreciate the complexity of language
o They didn’t systematically investigate and observe the phenomenon
o Used clinical techniques and characterized patient but did not indicate
scientific method
o No opportunity to replicate results or accumulate knowledge because
everyone is using different methods
Broca’s work attacked because:
o Evidence does not support his claim that certain functions can be
precisely localized
o Psychological concepts were inadequate

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o Did not carefully and systematically observe patients on which his theories
were based
o Brain function is hierarchically organized and a network
o Complex behaviours increase as levels become higher
o Each area of the brain is involved in one of three basic functions (units):
o Unit 1- brain stem regulates the arousal of the brain and maintenance of
proper muscle tone
o Unit 2- posterior area of cortex and is involved in reception, integration,
and analysis of information
o Unit 3- frontal and prefrontal lobes and is involved in planning, executing,
and verifying behaviour
o All behaviour is an interaction of these basic functions
o Brain plasticity- if there is damage to a particular area, there is the
possibility of a different functional system taking over the role previously
played by the damaged area
Cognitive psychologists
o Specify how information is internally represented
o Representation- physical state that conveys information, specifying an
object, event, or category or its characteristics
o Format- form of a representation
o Content- meaning conveyed by a particular representation
o Process- transformation of information that obeys well-defined principles
to produce a specific output when given a specific input
o Mental representations would not represent anything if they did not occur
within a processing system
o Processing system- set of processes that work together to accomplish a
type of task
o Algorithm- step-by-step procedure that guarantees that a certain input will
produce a certain output
o Serial algorithm- sequence of steps, with each depending on the one
o Parallel algorithm- operations that are performed at the same time
Why does understanding cognitive neuropsychology closely connect with
cognitive neuroscience?
o Similarity between theories proposed by cognitive neuropsychology and
cognitive neuroscience
o Cognitive models are modular in nature
o You can find out what modules are by gaining insight into what the
neuroscientists have decided them to be
Cognitive neuroscience
o Uses knowledge of the brain in theories of processing systems
o Focused on understanding the brain itself- what different parts do and how
they interact
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