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PSYC 3260 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Frontal Lobe, Basal Ganglia, Amygdala

Course Code
PSYC 3260
Norman Park
Study Guide

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***#of items STM stores depends on chunking and word meaning
William James system keeps in consciousness small # of ideas
primary memory—closely related to WM
memory-span procedure—STM capacity
oPresent sequence of items (1 item increasing by 1 until
mistake)required to repeat
oScoring. point ppl able to recall all items correctly 50% of time
Recoding/chunking; George Miller: memory span- determined by #
of ‘chunks’ needed to recall, not # of items presented
Brown/Peterson and Peterson technique measure STM capacity
present small # of items# (632). count backward til recall signal. 1
trial remem all letterslast produced interference-recall poor
Inducing rapid forgetting--distract
Murdock: perf: same: 3 consonants/3 words, importance of chunk
trace decay: automatic fading of mem
proactive interference: previously learned info interferes with new
oKeppel & Underwood: PI responsibleif perf on 1st trial only is
examined- small decline in perf over retention interval
retroactive interference--new info interferes w. previous info
evidence release from PI-- category of items shifted letters-#--perf
(recall) increases (shift semantic category)
Degree of semantic similarity-related to amt of interference
Serial Position Effect SP
U-shape relationship bw word position in list & its prob of recall
recency effect- items end of list—info still in STM at time of recall
omeasure: count # of accurately recalled items at end of list
primacy effect—beginning of list--(1) no competition w. earlier
items; (2) ppl rehears items more frequently
Interpretation of free recall study (Craik)
Primacy & intermediate components of curve- lower in delayed
compared to immediate cond; recency curve-lower in delayed
delayed=stronger influence on recency b.c it reflects STM perf
neuro evidence for separation of STM and LTM
amnesics support --normal digit span (mediated by STM), but
impaired ability to acquire/retain LTM
free recall tasks have both STM and LTM components
amnesics: damaged LTM component, intact STM component
KF damaged STM but intact LTM
Atkinson/shiffrin’s model—modal model of info processing
Info in STM lost w/in 30 sec unless repeated
info processing—(a) similar to comp operations; (b) info progresses
through cog systems in (sequence) of stages one step at a time
odistinguishes bw STM and LTM
External stimuli enter sensory mem—2 sec-brief storage; perceptio
SM info STM some LTM-decay, interference, loss of strength
Control processes—intentional (rehearsal)
Problems with MM
assumes STS plays critical role in transferring info to LTS
STS capacity should determine probability that item enters LTS
amt of exposure in STS should affect likelihood item enters LTS
Both these implications are incorrect
# of times info rehearsal= poor predictor of recall (shallow rehears
Shallice/Warrington poor mem span (damaged STS) -normal LTM
oKF understood spoken words by presenting list of spoken
words; tap table when words were from given category
MM-problems accounting for
opts w. STM deficits -have intact LTM
omaintaining item in STM doesnt ensure its transfer to LTM
Baddeley WM approach
WM, brief immediate; limited info currently processing; actively
coordinates ongoing (info)
WM multipart system (operate independently of each other)
dual task paradigm-evid for components w. independent capacity
primary task: grammatical reasoning—spatial reasoning
oDetermine whether sentences abt letter order true/false A B
secondary task: concurrent digit task: remem # sequences in order
ranging in length from 0 to 8
Results: reasoning time increased--overall perf remains good and
errors remained same, even when digit load is 8 (memory span)
ocould perform verbal & spatial task simultaneously, w/ min
reduction in speed/accuracy on either task
Baddeley results: concurrent digit span task-strong effect on
encoding and remembering new material
ono effect on perf accuracy when concurrent digit span task
performed during retrieval (retrieval latency was slowed)
Baddeley--digit span limitations set by one system, leaving other
WM components relatively unimpaired
Phonological loop
Briefly stores/processes small amt of sounds, 2 sec; items in loop
confused w. similar sounds; used for LTM, self instruction, reading,
produce language, comprehension of language, acquisition of vocab
self instruction—silently remind yourself
articulatory control p refreshes items in store subvocal rehearsal
Subvocalization—silently pronouncing words youre reading
Mem err- acoustic confusions—similar sounding stimuli; low recall
poor readers -poor STM span
Theme 4: cog processes are interrelated-do not operate in isolation
Neuroscience research on loop
loop tasks activate left hemisphere, left frontal (verbally rehearsel)
& parietal lobe (storing auditory) left hem processes
languageboth responsible for storing complex lengthy sentences
Left parietal processes long, simple sentences
Transcranial magnetic stimulation—briefly stimulate cortical
location (no surgery)— interferes info processing
Visuospatial Sketchpad VSS—WM and ST visual mem
access to this store by visual info is obligatory—limited info
Proces/stores visual/spatial.
gather visual info abt appearance of objects/landmarks & navigate
(its position in scene) from one location to another
can work simultaneously on one loop task (rehearsing 8 digit #) and
one VSS task (making judgements abt spatial location of letters AB
research on sketchpad
(1) no standard set of visual stimuli, comparable to words processed
in loop; (2) provide names -presented in visual form (beginning 8)
maria brandimonte—repeat irrelevant syllable (la)look at complex
visual stimulus. repetition occupies loop- use VSS coding
rehearsal activates right hem, occipital region (visual tasks—
responsible for visual perception), the frontal and parietal region
same areas associated w. attention
Central Executive CE controlling attentional system
Integrates info: loop, VSS, buffer, LTM. –supervisor, doesnt store—
cannot perform 2 complex tasks; daydreaming interferes w.
generating random # sequence
Role: focused A, planning, selecting strategies, transforming and
suppressing irrelevant info, coordinating behaviour, switching bw
tasks, overall WM functions (modulate = guide/ modify)
Research FL lesions—Activates various regions on both sides FL
Recent views of the central executive
executive A network EAN, prefrontal; strongly implicated in top-
down control of A, goal directed behavior & maintaining conscious
awareness—inhibit actions
Vigilance --sustained A
Parasuraman--vig perf decreases if vig task has STM component
involving storage/manipulation. i.e. if P has to detect 3 consecutive
odd #s from stream or must judge if adjacent items are same hue
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