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Study Guide

[PSYC 3265] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 48 pages long Study Guide!

48 Pages
54 Views
Winter 2015

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3265
Professor
Shayna Rosenbaum
Study Guide
Final

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York
PSYC 3265
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Chapter 1 What is Memory?
Clive Wearing dense amnesia, but preserved ability to play music.
other studies show that densely amnesic patients can repeat back a telephone number, suggesting
preserved immediate memory, and that they can learn motor skills at a normal rate.
1950s clark Hull general theory of learning explicitly modeled on the example set by Isaac Newton.
Tolman thought of rats as forming cognitive maps, internal representations of their environment that
were acquired as a result of active exploration. both sides found that they had to assume some kind of
representation b/w stimuli impinging on the rat and its learned behavior, but neither seemed to have a
solution to the problem of how these could be investigated.
in the case of psychological theories, different theories will operate at different levels of explanation
and focus on different issues. All of these explanations are relevant and in principle should be relatable to
each other, but none is the single correct interpretation. CONTRAST to reductionism the view that all
scientific explanations should aim to be based on a lower level of analysis: psychology in terms of
physiology, physiology in terms of chemistry, and chemistry in terms of physics.
Aristotle ancient philosophy;
Ayer and others reliance on introspection, the capacity to reflect and report our on-going thoughts. Not
reliable for 2 reasons: 1) people differ in what they appear to experience in a given situation; 2) we only
consciously aware of a relatively small proportion of the mechanisms underpinning our mental life.
Galton asked a number of people to reflect on their breakfast table from that morning and describe the
vividness of the resulting memory; what was not known to Galton it didn’t reflect how accurate our
memories are, suggesting that accuracy depends on some nonconscious process. subjective reports
don’t provide a very solid basis for understanding how our memory works.
Psychophysics attempt to systematically map the relationship b/w physical stimuli such as brightness
and loudness onto their perceived magnitude.
Ebbinghaus 2-year studies on himself, first classic book on the science of memory, developed material
devoid of meaning but was verbally learnable nonsense syllables, consonant-vowel-consonant. Served
as his own subject, always holding constant the room in which he learned, the time of day and the rate of
presentation, which was rapid, so as to avoid any temptation to attempt to find meaning in the stimuli.
Learning and forgetting curves; verbal learning a term applied to an approach to memory that relies
principally on the learning of lists of words and nonsense syllables.
Gestalt approach importance of internal representations rather than observable stimuli and reponses,
and to stress the active role of the rememberer; attempted to use perceptual principles to understand
memory and reasoning; emphasis on the activity of the learner in organizing material.
Bartlett used complex materal such as folk tales from other cultures, reflecting his interest in social
psychology and stressing the importance of the rememberer’s effort after meaning; emphasizes the
study of the memory errors that people made, explaining them in terms of the participants’ cultural
assumptions about the world; depended on our internal representations schemas.
Craik idea of representing theories as models, and using computers to develop such models; this
information-processing approach became increasingly influential. suing the digital computer as
analogy human memory could be regarded as comprising one or more storage systems. Any memory
system requires three things, the capacity to encode, or enter information into the system, the capacity to
store it, and the capacity to retrieve it. The method of registering material or encoding determines what
and how the information is stored, which in turn will limit what can subsequently be retrieved.
How Many kinds of Memory?
1960s information-processing approach to memory(environment sensory memory system STM
LTM) Atkinson and Shiffrin the modal model representative of many similar models of the
operation of human memory that were proposed at the time.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
The question of how many kinds of memory remains controversial, some say that the very concept
of a memory store as too static, arguing instead that we should be concerned with processes.
point to similarities across a range of different tasks and suggest that these imply common
processes, and hence a unitary memory system.
We need to think in terms of both structures such as stores and the processes that operate on
them, just as an analysis of the brain requires the contribution of both static anatomical features
and a more dynamic concern with physiology.
Flow of information in both direction (contradictory to the modal model) our knowledge of the
world, stored in LTM, can influence our focus of attention, which will then determine what is fed
into the secondary memory systems, how it’s processed and whether it’s subsequently
remembered.
Sensory memory a term applied to the brief storage of information within a specific modality.
Perceiving continuous moving image the perceptual system stores the visual information long
enough to bridge the gap b/w the static images, integrating each one with the next, very slightly
different image.
Neisser iconic memory a term applied to the brief storage of visual information. Out of 12 letters in 3
rows; remembering 4-5 items correctly.
The brighter the light during the interval, the poorer the performance, suggesting that the light is
interfering with the memory trace in some way, a process known as masking.
Brightness masking the degree of masking increasing when the mask becomes brighter, or is
presented closer in time to the stimulus. The effect only occurs if the mask and the stimulus are
presented to the same eye, suggesting that it’s operating at a peripheral retinal level. This would
give rise to experiencing a composite of target and mask, with the brighter mask the less distinct
the target.
Pattern masking targets are followed by a mask comprising broadly similar features to the
target, for example jumbled fragments of letters. This type of mask operates even when the target
is presented to one eye and the mask to the other. This suggests that it influences a later stage of
visual processing that occurs after information from the two eyes has been combined into a single
percept. It is relatively insensitive to brightness and subjectively feels as if a clear image has been
disrupted before the information could adequately be read off from it.
the function of iconic memory is probably indirect, forming part of the process of perceiving the
world; allows us to build up a coherent representation of the visual world and that allows a movie
to be perceived, not as a series of static frames with gaps in b/w, but as a continuous and realistic
visual experience.
Echoic memory a term sometimes applied to auditory sensory memory. Ex: asked to remember a
telephone number, your pattern of errors will differ depending on whether the number is heard or read.
With visual presentation, the likelihood of an error increases systematically from the beginning to the
end of the sequence, whereas with auditory presentation the last 1 or 2 items are much more likely to be
correct than are items in the middle of the list. such recency advantage can be removed by interposing
another spoken item b/w presentation and recall. a visual or non-speech-like auditory suffix, such as a
buzzer, doesn’t disrupt performance, whereas a spoken suffix does, regardless of its meaning.
Precategorical acoustic store as the basis for the auditory recency effect (controversy over
whether its an aspect of memory or perception)
STM a term applied to the retention of small amounts of material over periods of a few seconds.
WM a memory system that underpins our capacity to keep things in mind when performing complex
tasks.
there’s likely to be a contribution to performance from LTM that will need to be taken into account in
evaluating the role of any more temporary storage systems.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
York PSYC 3265 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE find more resources at oneclass.com Chapter 1 What is Memory? Clive Wearing dense amnesia, but preserved ability to play music. other studies show that densely amnesic patients can repeat back a telephone number, suggesting preserved immediate memory, and that they can learn motor skills at a normal rate. 1950s clark Hull general theory of learning explicitly modeled on the example set by Isaac Newton. Tolman thought of rats as forming cognitive maps, internal representations of their environment that were acquired as a result of active exploration. both sides found that they had to assume some kind of representation bw stimuli impinging on the rat and its learned behavior, but neither seemed to have a solution to the problem of how these could be investigated. in the case of psychological theories, different theories will operate at different levels of explanation and focus on different issues. All of these explanations are relevant and in principle should be relatable to each other, but none is the single correct interpretation. CONTRAST to reductionism the view that all scientific explanations should aim to be based on a lower level of analysis: psychology in terms of physiology, physiology in terms of chemistry, and chemistry in terms of physics. Aristotle ancient philosophy; Ayer and others reliance on introspection, the capacity to reflect and report our ongoing thoughts. Not reliable for 2 reasons: 1) people differ in what they appear to experience in a given situation; 2) we only consciously aware of a relatively small proportion of the mechanisms underpinning our mental life. Galton asked a number of people to reflect on their breakfast table from that morning and describe the vividness of the resulting memory; what was not known to Galton it didnt reflect how accurate our memories are, suggesting that accuracy depends on some nonconscious process. subjective reports dont provide a very solid basis for understanding how our memory works. Psychophysics attempt to systematically map the relationship bw physical stimuli such as brightness and loudness onto their perceived magnitude. Ebbinghaus 2year studies on himself, first classic book on the science of memory, developed material devoid of meaning but was verbally learnable nonsense syllables, consonantvowelconsonant. Served as his own subject, always holding constant the room in which he learned, the time of day and the rate of presentation, which was rapid, so as to avoid any temptation to attempt to find meaning in the stimuli. Learning and forgetting curves; verbal learning a term applied to an approach to memory that relies principally on the learning of lists of words and nonsense syllables. Gestalt approach importance of internal representations rather than observable stimuli and reponses, and to stress the active role of the rememberer; attempted to use perceptual principles to understand memory and reasoning; emphasis on the activity of the learner in organizing material. Bartlett used complex materal such as folk tales from other cultures, reflecting his interest in social psychology and stressing the importance of the rememberers effort after meaning; emphasizes the study of the memory errors that people made, explaining them in terms of the participants cultural assumptions about the world; depended on our internal representations schemas. Craik idea of representing theories as models, and using computers to develop such models; this informationprocessing approach became increasingly influential. suing the digital computer as analogy human memory could be regarded as comprising one or more storage systems. Any memory system requires three things, the capacity to encode, or enter information into the system, the capacity to store it, and the capacity to retrieve it. The method of registering material or encoding determines what and how the information is stored, which in turn will limit what can subsequently be retrieved. How Many kinds of Memory? 1960s informationprocessing approach to memory(environment sensory memory system STM LTM) Atkinson and Shiffrin the modal model representative of many similar models of the operation of human memory that were proposed at the time. find more resources at oneclass.com
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