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Final

PSYC 3265 Final: final exam notes
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3265
Professor
Norman Park

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*Langs-enter every session with no memory, desire, or understanding.
Rule of thumbif U let ppl they will always talk about themselves
Reframe/define--present problem to client in a way that it may be
resolvedbased on assumption that the manner in which we view a situation
influences how we think ac and feel. When the fream or way of explaining
and understanding a situation is changed, its meaning is drastically altered.
Therapist must beable to view alt explanations
most important change=“choice”
Maslowpyramid of self actualizationppl motivated to self actualization
(client centered)
Counseling trains ppl to be more passionate consumers of life
Carl Jung collective unconscious
Alfred Adler birth order. Key: how ppl compensate for deficiencies
Frankl existential therapy, if you have the why you find the how
Clifford Beershad breakdown, treated horribly, and when came out tried to
reform the system by publishing info to the public.
o Published autobiography of experiences as a mental patient
o Friendly Spike: organization where ppl w. mental illness who were
hospitalized decided to raise public awareness by staging plays.
Outraged by whats still occurring today, like forced ECT
carl rogersoffer unconditional positive regard
o congruentfacial expressions and what you say need to match
o empathy
o importance of the relationship dimension
o Rogers “core conditions” (realness, genuineness, freedom, acceptance,
trust, prizing and empathetic understanding)
Robert carkhuffPERSON CENTERED COUNSELLING a systematic
and generalist approach to task of helping. counsellors must be skilled,
reliable, and capable of delivering effective levels of core counselling
generic skills. Identified “core conditions”
o developed methods of assessing effectiveness (developed generic skills
that provide a base for effective helping relationships)
o reflecting, confronting, summarizing, attending and goal setting
o Combined techniques of behavioural analysis into a helping model that
presented simplified counsellor skills as the essence od constructive
intervention
o convert rogerian philosophy into a system of action
o BASIC ASSUMPTIONS PAGE 116??
Self-reflection-counsellors need to reflect on & get clarity abt own values --
serious thought about one's character, actions, and motives.
Relationship: systematic and intentional attempt, using a specified cluster of
interpersonal skills to assist another person to make self-determined
improvements in behaviour, feelings, or thoughts
What is counselling?
has ethical guidelines. works w. ppl w. diff adjustment/development
individual and group format; multidimensional b.c deals w. feelings,
thoughts, and behaviour
What is the process?
help them articulate why they are seeking help
formulate goals for therapy
teach clients how to get the most from the experience
develop high degree of trust (therapeutic alliance)-most sig part of therapy
diagnose dysfunctional areas
explore the client’s world
o CBT doesnt do this--doesnt look at why client develop that problem
o every dysfunction is functional-writer’s cramp
accept client while challenging selective behaviours that are not fully
functioning
identify inconsistencies, like issues and their underlying meanings
o ex: talk abt mom being sick while smiling relationship issues
challenge irrational thoughts and inappropriate assumptions
uncover hidden motives
o Freud said transference b.c his therapy involved min interaction and so
anything that occurred was due to client’s history and personal motives
o example: client upset b.c therapist looked at him a certain way; realized
it was because father used to look at him like that
o transference-see someone and immediately like/dislike them has to do
w. unconscious mem this person elicits
redirection to a therapist, of emotions that were originally felt in
childhood (transference neurosis ).
o Countertransference-- redirection of a therapists feelings toward a
clienttherapist's emotional entanglement with a client.
Addressing own personal reactions to your work
(countertransference reactions-below)
address personal reactions to your workcountertransference reactions
therapist lose objectivity/ clarity b.c of own personal issues interfere w. work
visual kinesthetic and auditoryhow we perceive the world
Seligmans learned helplessness-when feel you have to do something even if
do not want to; therapy gives you back that choice
What is the role of a therapist?
Client like curling stone and therapist is broom: helps client get to where he
R. Langes, The Bi Personal Field--client is smart, resourceful,
understanding but just going through turmoil. dont view them as
incompetent.--Open ur eyes and ears cause the client is smart
Carl Rogers: therapist needs to be with and for the client
THREE KINDS OF RELATIONSHIP/INTERACTIONS
Weiner: therapist-C R, is carried out in three separate, but interrelated levels:
transference, reality R, working alliance
Transference reactions are usually triggered by some events in reality and
realistic reactions often contain transference attitudes.
Working alliance--Therapist creates businesslike contract w. client to mean
certain specific goals w. an action plan for reaching them (teacher-student)
o purpose of affiliation: ensure compliance w. agreed-upon treatment
The C
Transferencedisplacement of feelings attitudes and thoughts experienced
by C toward a specific figure in life onto the therapist (to whome they
objectively do not apply)provides vivid clues to C past experiences
o Unrealistically intense
Reality oriented interactionC real R are his appropriate and reasonable
responses to the therapists msgs or behaviours
o Diff bw transference and this is not kind of R but the intensity
Working allianceapscts of R concerned with the agreement to work in
certain ways toward alleviating the C problems
o Reality oriented and free of distortions
o Unlike transference, contains accurate perceptions of treatment
situations which are openly reported by C and later discussed by
therapist and C
o Differs from normal/other R due to its lack of mutuality
o Aims to help C better understand his needs and diff foregoing those of
the therapists. In daily lives ppl graify eachothers needs
o Paradoxical unsymmetric interpretive arrangement
The Therapist
Countertransferenceinappropriate irrational reactions by therapist to C
behaviour
o Comprise displacements by therapist onto C of thoughts, feelings, and
impulses that are not justified in reality by anything C said or did
The real Rcharacterized by therapists values and attitudes (may be
expressed through behaviour toward C).
o reactions that stem from the congruity bw therapists values and C actual
behaviour constitute reality and do not involve distorted perceptions or
displacement
The working alliancefrom thereapists point of view: R comprises the
feelings and behaviours he displays towards C as a result of the treatment
contract
o Included: therapists dedication to help C, respect integrity as a human
and listen in non judgmental manner
o Working alliance R is asymmetrical, non-mutual
MODEL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY--MODEL OF CHANGE
awareness be aware of problem or that something is not working
o if they lack it, I help develop it
understandingthe problem and what are its causes
o I believe every dysfunction is functionalthere is a cause to it
ownership must realize problem is yours
o ppl sometimes unable to own their problem and blame it on someone or
something eles
empowermentmust show client that we can address and change the issue
o help ppl relize that life can be better and influenced by what they decide
to do and by how they do it--I am with you
changeshow how the dysfunction can be overcome
o most important change psychotherapy creates is gift of choice
o a man is the sum of his choices
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find more resources at oneclass.com
o its not what we do that therapy aims to change, it is our choice, wishes,
and our pic of world that is most importantly influenced by therapy and
has in turn such a effect on our mental well being and contentment
initiating therapy
o self-disclosure
o explaining how we will work together
o langs: w/o mem, desire (follow C), or understanding (we will listen)
o therapy as microcosm of reality
o refreaming (dysfuctions anre functional)
o therapeutic relationship
unconditional positive regard
genuineness
authenticity
empathy
cashdans process of developing intimate relations
data gatheringlearn abt person; first several sessions
o learn history, way of viewing the, world, modes of interaction, patterns
of problem solving and the emotional pain, the behavioral difficulties
o learn whether a R can evolve
o make a contract during this phase
o client also gather info: abt office how therapist talks
risky revealingplaces the both C and therapist in a vulnerable position,
entailing a high degree of trust
o revealing facts cannot continue so C and therapist enter strategies which
help to develop and maintain ongoing Rfinal phase of R includes a
series of interpersonal transaction (strategies)
Strategiesdiscrete modes of behaviour patters or roles which the
participants engage during their interactions which maintain the R
intimacy and sexuality
o intimacy is develop and nurtured by the therapists sensitivity to the
feelings being expressed by C, communicating this understanding in a
way the C can understand
To be or not to be someones therapist
A. ethics code of APA prohibit practice outside area of competence.cannot
treat disorder unless uve been trained to treat it (not skilled w. age group
B. we have tender spots (childhood wounds)—sexually assaulted…cannot
treat sex offenders
prior personal therapy, knowing and addressing our demons and being at
peace with what happened to us is highly valuable
C. cannot treat anyone under legal age without their legal guardian
D. those with lower intelligent can be treated but will be difficult
TO BE A COUNSELLOR
informed consentethical concept: disclosure of risks so u can make
knowledgeable decisions about your participation
Dealing with Anxiety
our anxieties reflect what we went through
am I smart enough or capable enough?
is this the right job for you?
will I know enough to help people?
what if others find out my inadequacies?
what if your personal values or morals influence the situation?
What if I accidently hurt someone during therapy w. a lapse or mistake?
o if client falls in love with therapist, worst thing is send person away
o most important thing to do: acknowledge it, and share unethical part of
w. client. If handled correctly doesnt destroy trust in relationship.
Making a Commitmentto profession and lifestyle
successive stagesexploring, reflecting, analyzing, interpreting and
confrontingthen action
Striving for Excellence
take responsibility for own growth and striving for excellence in your
personal behaviour
Adopting a Neutral Posture (Freud believed this)
dedication to helping ppl w/o having invested interest in particular directions
that they may choose
relationship is moral and political enterprise rather than a strictly neutral one
neutrality is the catchword of a therapeutic relationship
Subjugating Personal Needs
controlling own needs/desires/preferences for best interests for client
doing counseling is like an exercise in mindfulness
counselling is not natural
coping with Discomfort
such as client outbursts (due to transference)
learn to become comfortable in the presence of others discomfort
confrontation forces client to face discrepancies/incongruence/ inconsistency
Dealing with Loss and Grief
need to help yourself before you help others
sit w. others grief & help access intense levels of emotional pain
when clients complain of feeling “stuck” regarding an important choice,
their distress can be traced to a fear of facing the loss of “the road not taken”
Dealing with Ambiguity
unlike sciences, psychology is gray; learn to deal w. perpetual ambiguity
requires you function well w. abstract ideas and ambiguous circumstances
counsellors inhabit a professional world characterized by uncertainty and
ambiguityclients often not fully aware of your problems (they circle items)
counsellors: abandon search for cause-effect and come to terms w. ambiguity
and uncertainty which reflect reality of individual
CHAPTER 2: FOUNDATIONS OF COUNSELING
counselorstherapeutic interventions w. normal unctioning clients who are
experiencing adjustment reactions, developmental issues, and problems of
daily living including career, education, family, personal and esteem issues
psychologistsdiagnosis, treatment, and clinical management of ppl w.
psychopathological symptoms and other severe mental disturbances
family therapistssystematic approach to diagnosing and treating
problems in a family context; extensive use of more active/directive
interventions to realign family structures
social workerssocial casework and therapy to mediate relationships w.
social structures like schools, agencies, and health care facilities
psychiatristsmedical management of patients w. clinically sig
psychological problems; use medication, hospitalization and therapy
Counseling (unlike therapy) emphasizes the nature of work that specializes:
o Preventing rather than only fixing the problems
o developmental rather than only psychopathological model of diagnosis
o Focus: adjustment issues and developmental concerns rather than only
more severe psychopathology
o Short-term rather than long-term, community rather than medical
HISTORY OF COUNSELINGPAGE 29 LEFT OFF
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH: MEASURING EXPERIENCES
Theory of how something works, develop hypothesis that can be tested,
conducts controlled experiments, uses stat procedures to evaluate whether
hypothesis was supported or rejected, interprets results, examines findings
implications for conducting effective counselling
Central to paradigm: notion that understanding human phenomena requires
that researchers find a way to quantify ppls experiences
questionnaires or scales on which subjects rate their experience
Obtains reasonable certainty that certain counselling treatment is effective
large groups of ppl and then generalize to a given client
How we conceptualize clients problems
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: EXPLIRING EXPERIENCES
Explores the lived experiences of ppl
Emphasis: elucidating the richness and complexity of inner life
assumption: we can never know exactly what ppl experience
Data are not numbers but rather what ppl say abt their lives
Interviews or observationsresearcher codes info to identify meaningful
themes that capture essence of communications
small # of ppl in depth=then try to theorize what might be evident for others
Model is a virtual guide to how we interact with clients
Steps for conducting an interview for qualitative study:
o Establish trusting open relationship
o Focus on meaning of what client says rather then accuracy of their mem
o Move past the clients surface responses by making it safe for the person
to disclose deeper feelings and more precise descriptions of experience
o Stay present with client
o Pay attention to facial gestures, posture, clothing
**both models serve as frameworks for vonducting counselling
Many different roles
Varied roles depending on the setting in which they practice
Individual assessmentobservation, info seeking and interpretation of
behaviour. Results of assessment are valuable in screening, placement,
diagnosis, evaluation, and planning of treatment approaches
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Description
*Langsenter every session with no memory, desire, or understanding. Addressing own personal reactions to your work Rule of thumbif U let ppl they will always talk about themselves (countertransference reactionsbelow) Reframedefinepresent problem to client in a way that it may be address personal reactions to your workcountertransference reactions resolvedbased on assumption that the manner in which we view a situation therapist lose objectivity clarity b.c of own personal issues interfere w. work influences how we think ac and feel. When the fream or way of explaining visual kinesthetic and auditoryhow we perceive the world and understanding a situation is changed, its meaning is drastically altered. Seligmans learned helplessnesswhen feel you have to do something even if Therapist must beable to view alt explanations do not want to; therapy gives you back that choice most important change=choice What is the role of a therapist? Maslowpyramid of self actualizationppl motivated to self actualization Client like curling stone and therapist is broom: helps client get to where he (client centered) R. Langes, The Bi Personal Fieldclient is smart, resourceful, Counseling trains ppl to be more passionate consumers of life understanding but just going through turmoil. dont view them as Carl Jung collective unconscious incompetent.Open ur eyes and ears cause the client is smart Alfred Adler birth order. Key: how ppl compensate for deficiencies Carl Rogers: therapist needs to be with and for the client Frankl existential therapy, if you have the why you find the how THREE KINDS OF RELATIONSHIPINTERACTIONS Clifford Beershad breakdown, treated horribly, and when came out tried to Weiner: therapistC R, is carried out in three separate, but interrelated levels: transference, reality R, working alliance reform the system by publishing info to the public. o Published autobiography of experiences as a mental patient Transference reactions are usually triggered by some events in reality and o Friendly Spike: organization where ppl w. mental illness who were realistic reactions often contain transference attitudes. hospitalized decided to raise public awareness by staging plays. Working allianceTherapist creates businesslike contract w. client to mean Outraged by whats still occurring today, like forced ECT certain specific goals w. an action plan for reaching them (teacherstudent) carl rogersoffer unconditional positive regard o purpose of affiliation: ensure compliance w. agreedupon treatment The C o congruentfacial expressions and what you say need to match o empathy Transferencedisplacement of feelings attitudes and thoughts experienced o importance of the relationship dimension by C toward a specific figure in life onto the therapist (to whome they o Rogers core conditions (realness, genuineness, freedom, acceptance, objectively do not apply)provides vivid clues to C past experiences trust, prizing and empathetic understanding) o Unrealistically intense Robert carkhuffPERSON CENTERED COUNSELLING a systematic Reality oriented interactionC real R are his appropriate and reasonable and generalist approach to task of helping. counsellors must be skilled, responses to the therapists msgs or behaviours reliable, and capable of delivering effective levels of core counselling o Diff bw transference and this is not kind of R but the intensity generic skills. Identified core conditions Working allianceapscts of R concerned with the agreement to work in o developed methods of assessing effectiveness (developed generic skills certain ways toward alleviating the C problems that provide a base for effective helping relationships) o Reality oriented and free of distortions o reflecting, confronting, summarizing, attending and goal setting o Unlike transference, contains accurate perceptions of treatment o Combined techniques of behavioural analysis into a helping model that situations which are openly reported by C and later discussed by presented simplified counsellor skills as the essence od constructive therapist and C intervention o Differs from normalother R due to its lack of mutuality o convert rogerian philosophy into a system of action o Aims to help C better understand his needs and diff foregoing those of o BASIC ASSUMPTIONS PAGE 116?? the therapists. In daily lives ppl graify eachothers needs Selfreflectioncounsellors need to reflect on get clarity abt own values o Paradoxical unsymmetric interpretive arrangement serious thought about ones character, actions, and motives. The Therapist Relationship: systematic and intentional attempt, using a specified cluster of Countertransferenceinappropriate irrational reactions by therapist to C interpersonal skills to assist another person to make selfdetermined behaviour improvements in behaviour, feelings, or thoughts o Comprise displacements by therapist onto C of thoughts, feelings, and What is counselling? impulses that are not justified in reality by anything C said or did has ethical guidelines. works w. ppl w. diff adjustmentdevelopment The real Rcharacterized by therapists values and attitudes (may be expressed through behaviour toward C). individual and group format; multidimensional b.c deals w. feelings, thoughts, and behaviour o reactions that stem from the congruity bw therapists values and C actual What is the process? behaviour constitute reality and do not involve distorted perceptions or help them articulate why they are seeking help displacement formulate goals for therapy The working alliancefrom thereapists point of view: R comprises the teach clients how to get the most from the experience feelings and behaviours he displays towards C as a result of the treatment contract develop high degree of trust (therapeutic alliance)most sig part of therapy diagnose dysfunctional areas o Included: therapists dedication to help C, respect integrity as a human explore the clients world and listen in non judgmental manner o CBT doesnt do thisdoesnt look at why client develop that problem o Working alliance R is asymmetrical, nonmutual o every dysfunction is functionalwriters cramp MODEL OF PSYCHOTHERAPYMODEL OF CHANGE awareness be aware of problem or that something is not working accept client while challenging selective behaviours that are not fully o if they lack it, I help develop it functioning identify inconsistencies, like issues and their underlying meanings understandingthe problem and what are its causes o ex: talk abt mom being sick while smiling relationship issues o I believe every dysfunction is functionalthere is a cause to it challenge irrational thoughts and inappropriate assumptions ownership must realize problem is yours uncover hidden motives o ppl sometimes unable to own their problem and blame it on someone or o Freud said transference b.c his therapy involved min interaction and so something eles anything that occurred was due to clients history and personal motives empowermentmust show client that we can address and change the issue o example: client upset b.c therapist looked at him a certain way; realized o help ppl relize that life can be better and influenced by what they decide it was because father used to look at him like that o transferencesee someone and immediately likedislike them has to do to do and by how they do itI am with you changeshow how the dysfunction can be overcome w. unconscious mem this person elicits o most important change psychotherapy creates is gift of choice redirection to a therapist, of emotions that were originally felt in o a man is the sum of his choices childhood (transference neurosis ). o Countertransference redirection of a therapists feelings toward a clienttherapists emotional entanglement with a client.
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