*Langsenter every session with no memory, desire, or understanding. Addressing own personal reactions to your work Rule of thumbif U let ppl they will always talk about themselves (countertransference reactionsbelow) Reframedefinepresent problem to client in a way that it may be address personal reactions to your workcountertransference reactions resolvedbased on assumption that the manner in which we view a situation therapist lose objectivity clarity b.c of own personal issues interfere w. work influences how we think ac and feel. When the fream or way of explaining visual kinesthetic and auditoryhow we perceive the world and understanding a situation is changed, its meaning is drastically altered. Seligmans learned helplessnesswhen feel you have to do something even if Therapist must beable to view alt explanations do not want to; therapy gives you back that choice most important change=choice What is the role of a therapist? Maslowpyramid of self actualizationppl motivated to self actualization Client like curling stone and therapist is broom: helps client get to where he (client centered) R. Langes, The Bi Personal Fieldclient is smart, resourceful, Counseling trains ppl to be more passionate consumers of life understanding but just going through turmoil. dont view them as Carl Jung collective unconscious incompetent.Open ur eyes and ears cause the client is smart Alfred Adler birth order. Key: how ppl compensate for deficiencies Carl Rogers: therapist needs to be with and for the client Frankl existential therapy, if you have the why you find the how THREE KINDS OF RELATIONSHIPINTERACTIONS Clifford Beershad breakdown, treated horribly, and when came out tried to Weiner: therapistC R, is carried out in three separate, but interrelated levels: transference, reality R, working alliance reform the system by publishing info to the public. o Published autobiography of experiences as a mental patient Transference reactions are usually triggered by some events in reality and o Friendly Spike: organization where ppl w. mental illness who were realistic reactions often contain transference attitudes. hospitalized decided to raise public awareness by staging plays. Working allianceTherapist creates businesslike contract w. client to mean Outraged by whats still occurring today, like forced ECT certain specific goals w. an action plan for reaching them (teacherstudent) carl rogersoffer unconditional positive regard o purpose of affiliation: ensure compliance w. agreedupon treatment The C o congruentfacial expressions and what you say need to match o empathy Transferencedisplacement of feelings attitudes and thoughts experienced o importance of the relationship dimension by C toward a specific figure in life onto the therapist (to whome they o Rogers core conditions (realness, genuineness, freedom, acceptance, objectively do not apply)provides vivid clues to C past experiences trust, prizing and empathetic understanding) o Unrealistically intense Robert carkhuffPERSON CENTERED COUNSELLING a systematic Reality oriented interactionC real R are his appropriate and reasonable and generalist approach to task of helping. counsellors must be skilled, responses to the therapists msgs or behaviours reliable, and capable of delivering effective levels of core counselling o Diff bw transference and this is not kind of R but the intensity generic skills. Identified core conditions Working allianceapscts of R concerned with the agreement to work in o developed methods of assessing effectiveness (developed generic skills certain ways toward alleviating the C problems that provide a base for effective helping relationships) o Reality oriented and free of distortions o reflecting, confronting, summarizing, attending and goal setting o Unlike transference, contains accurate perceptions of treatment o Combined techniques of behavioural analysis into a helping model that situations which are openly reported by C and later discussed by presented simplified counsellor skills as the essence od constructive therapist and C intervention o Differs from normalother R due to its lack of mutuality o convert rogerian philosophy into a system of action o Aims to help C better understand his needs and diff foregoing those of o BASIC ASSUMPTIONS PAGE 116?? the therapists. In daily lives ppl graify eachothers needs Selfreflectioncounsellors need to reflect on get clarity abt own values o Paradoxical unsymmetric interpretive arrangement serious thought about ones character, actions, and motives. The Therapist Relationship: systematic and intentional attempt, using a specified cluster of Countertransferenceinappropriate irrational reactions by therapist to C interpersonal skills to assist another person to make selfdetermined behaviour improvements in behaviour, feelings, or thoughts o Comprise displacements by therapist onto C of thoughts, feelings, and What is counselling? impulses that are not justified in reality by anything C said or did has ethical guidelines. works w. ppl w. diff adjustmentdevelopment The real Rcharacterized by therapists values and attitudes (may be expressed through behaviour toward C). individual and group format; multidimensional b.c deals w. feelings, thoughts, and behaviour o reactions that stem from the congruity bw therapists values and C actual What is the process? behaviour constitute reality and do not involve distorted perceptions or help them articulate why they are seeking help displacement formulate goals for therapy The working alliancefrom thereapists point of view: R comprises the teach clients how to get the most from the experience feelings and behaviours he displays towards C as a result of the treatment contract develop high degree of trust (therapeutic alliance)most sig part of therapy diagnose dysfunctional areas o Included: therapists dedication to help C, respect integrity as a human explore the clients world and listen in non judgmental manner o CBT doesnt do thisdoesnt look at why client develop that problem o Working alliance R is asymmetrical, nonmutual o every dysfunction is functionalwriters cramp MODEL OF PSYCHOTHERAPYMODEL OF CHANGE awareness be aware of problem or that something is not working accept client while challenging selective behaviours that are not fully o if they lack it, I help develop it functioning identify inconsistencies, like issues and their underlying meanings understandingthe problem and what are its causes o ex: talk abt mom being sick while smiling relationship issues o I believe every dysfunction is functionalthere is a cause to it challenge irrational thoughts and inappropriate assumptions ownership must realize problem is yours uncover hidden motives o ppl sometimes unable to own their problem and blame it on someone or o Freud said transference b.c his therapy involved min interaction and so something eles anything that occurred was due to clients history and personal motives empowermentmust show client that we can address and change the issue o example: client upset b.c therapist looked at him a certain way; realized o help ppl relize that life can be better and influenced by what they decide it was because father used to look at him like that o transferencesee someone and immediately likedislike them has to do to do and by how they do itI am with you changeshow how the dysfunction can be overcome w. unconscious mem this person elicits o most important change psychotherapy creates is gift of choice redirection to a therapist, of emotions that were originally felt in o a man is the sum of his choices childhood (transference neurosis ). o Countertransference redirection of a therapists feelings toward a clienttherapists emotional entanglement with a client.