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Psycholinguistics Midterm Review.docx

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York University
PSYC 3290
Justin Friesen

Psycholinguistics Midterm ReviewLinguistic relativity asks the question does language influence cognitionCommunication is a means of relaying information between at least two agentsLanguage is human speech an artificial system of signs and symbols with rules for forming intelligible communication for useLanguage is a body of words and the systems for their use common to a people who are of the same community or nationHacketts design features of human spoken language consist of o Speech specificsvocal auditory channel broadcast transmission and directional reception rapid fading complete feedback and specialization o SymbolicProductivesemanticistsarbitrariness discreteness openness and duality of pattern o CognitionSociallearn ability interchangeability displacement tradition reflexivity and prevaricationA natural language must have regularity governed by a system of rules called grammar productivity generative infinite combinations of things that can be expressed arbitrariness there is a lack of resemblance between a wordsentence and it is referent and discreteness the system can be subdivided into recognizable partsAnimal studies symbolic and productive an ape named washoe learned 150200 words strings of words and sensitivity to word order Kanzi a bonobo chimp learned lexigrams symbols and learned from observationMany species of songbirds learn their songs through vocal learning young birds must hear a nonspecific song during the sensory phase in order to perform it correctly females also exhibit some sensitive song preferences The younger you are the better you are to acquire and learn a languageLanguage is important because it facilitates communication and social interactions productivity expression of ideas it assists in the generation and absorption of knowledge and allows for knowledge and organization to develop also it provides a creative outlet and a cultural identityThe maturation hypothesis is that children have a superior language learning ability that declines as maturation progresses but should level off when puberty ends90 of deaf children have hearing parents there is a mismatch between language input and means by which the child can best communicate The earlier deaf children are exposed to sign language the better the ultimate achievement Nicaraguan sign language NSL started in the 1970s the complexity of the language evolved as cohorts of students interacted Simultaneous signs preceded sequential signs older signers did not display the same degree of syntactic complexityThe SapirWhorf hypothesis consists ofo Linguistic determinism which is the form and characteristics of our language determine the way we think o Linguistic relativism are different languages that map on to the world in different cognitive structures
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