Ceci & bruck (1993) traces back some early views of child witnesses during the salem. Witch trials of 1692 when children told falsehoods and claims of witchcraft. Early reviews concluded that young children were highly susceptible and had difficulty distinguishing fact from fantasy (whipple, 1909-1912). Directed questioning: forced choice format leads to highly suggestible leads. Why are children more suggestible than adults: social compliance/pressure, cognition. Criterion-based content analysis: analysis that uses criteria to distinguish truthful from false statements made by children. Statement validity analysis: a comprehensive protocol to distinguish truthful and false statements made by children through (1) a structured interview, (2) a systematic analysis of the verbal content (criterion-based), and (3) the application of the statement validity checklist. Step-wise interview: interview protocol with a series of steps designed to start the interview with the least leading and directive type of questioning, and then proceed to more specific forms of questioning as necessary.