PSYC 3410 Midterm Exam (Open Book)
(73) SEARCHING FOR AND ASSESSING THEORY OF MIND IN AUTISM: Enhancing
Presence of Mind
Theory of Mind (TOM) as the ability to read other individuals, to relate to other people
and to be in touch with the self (73).
Autistic children are shown to lack “pretend play,” attention, social interest, social play,
and joint-attention (74).
Similarities between primates and infant human children in self-recognition tasks (76-77).
Vygotsky regarded language as a “tool for thought” and theorized that children develop
internalized languages as the engage more into shared social dialogues (78).
Seligman wrote about the faulty beliefs adults and children possess that can cause them to
become pessimistic and bitter (79). Cognitive therapy can be an effective treatment.
Gardner notes that the autistic child, who has no documented brain damage, is one who
has “an impaired sense of self” and “inability to communicate with others” (80).
Autistic children are often thought to lack a developed TOM (81).
It is common for children younger than 3 to be unable to take the perspective of another
person (82). Autistic children and adults show some form of developed perspective from
another point of view but at a much lower mental age capacity than the norm (82-83).
Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales (VABS) showed no significant differences of
conduct mishaps between normal children and children with conduct disorder. Happe and
Frith suggested that such children have a “skewed theory of mind.” Autistic children also
showed similar results except that impaired “social insight” was included (83). Failure of
parental involvement is suggested to be the prime cause of such behavior.
Learning disabilities were often mistakenly attributed and diagnosed to children who
show even a small ounce of speaking or learning difficulty (84).
Social behavioral problem prevention was a large initiative important for the
“mentalizing capacity” in children (86).
There is a variety of intervention skills used to assess the theory of mind in children and
prevent possible delinquent activities committed by the children themselves (87).
IQ level happens to be a lower priority to measure in this study (88).
The theory however is still disputed among academics regarding children with
Asperger‟s syndrome having just as much social competency with other children (89).
(93) FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF PREMATURELY-BORN SIX/SEVEN-YEAR-OLD
CHILDREN OF VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT: Intellectual, Motor, and Attentional
Functioning Birth weight found to be positively correlated with intelligence at six/seven years of age.
Very low birth weight (VLBW) to extremely low birth weight (ELBW) prematurely born
individuals (prems) are more prevalent due to improvements in medical science (94).
Memory and birth weight almost showed a significant correlation (97).
Processing speed IQ showed very little correlation (97).
Cognitive skills among prems were seen to be average (97-98).
Conners‟ Continuous Performance Test is a vigilance task on a computer given to VLBW
children requiring extra testing or who were late for the six-year-old appointment (99).
Impulsiveness on the Conners‟ test correlated with high failure rates (99).
WISC-IV yielded average (uncorrected) composite IQ scores (100).
Columbia and PPVT-3 “alternatives” showed low-average scores (100).
This pilot study showed the Bayley II, Peabody and WISC-IV useful for diagnosing and
tracking developmental changes in VLBW prems (101).
Uncorrected Bayley II served as “wakeup” call for parents to obtain needed mediational
help for their VLBW toddlers.
(107) ASSESSMENT OF CHILDREN‟S DRAWINGS: Intellectual, Visual-Motor and
Emotional / Personality Functioning
Elements of conscious and unconscious meaning in children‟s figure drawings can be
used in clinical and school settings (107).
“Draw-a-person” (DAP) test was administered to young children relatively easily than
other conventional forms of clinical diagnosis (107-108).
Raw scores (max 64 items) of DAP tests screened for potential cognitive deficiencies
(108). Other authors saw the DAP as a cultural-bound test drawn from creators who
sought a culture-free diagnosis regardless of intelligence and mental health (108).
DAP is a developmental test that can have improved scores by practicing (109).
Case studies found many disadvantages of standardized diagnostic measures and the
misdiagnosis of individuals with potential that cannot be seen through screening (110).
Human figure drawings can be used as a measure of a child‟s emotion and personality
because the drawings are “natural” and spontaneous products of self-expression (111).
Silver developed a Draw-a-story (DAS) drawing protocol to study depression (113).
Methodological concern regarding HFD as a valid and reliable diagnostic test (114).
Drawing placements describe a variety of indicators that may diagnose potential causes
of a child‟s well-being, especially in the case of depression (116).
Human features typically represent (size and detail) various parts of the mental health of
the individual and the representation of one‟s own expression (116-127).
HFD appears to be a useful tool to acquire knowledge on children‟s projection of life as
well as determining eloquent expression of personality traits (127).
A word of caution is that drawings should not be solely relied upon for diagnostic
measures, but it is useful in more ways than one depending on the case (127-128). (131) A HISTORY OF CHILDREN‟S DRAWING TESTS: Changing Models
Clinical psychology and legitimizing the field of psychology as science (131-132)
Committee of Psychological Examination of Recruits and the Committee on
Classification of Personnel (132). Child Development Movement of the 1920s
encouraged psychologists to determine the appropriate developmental plan for children
and to keeping out undesirable immigrants from entering US school systems (132).
Eugenics-minded believed that visible minorities and Eastern Europeans dragged down
the intelligence and the national mean of IQ (132).
The main tool of psychological assessment in the 1920 was the Stanford-Binet test (133).
Florence Goodenough designed the “Draw-a-Man” test and authored the book
Measurement of Intelligence by Drawings (133).
“Draw-a-man” test and Stanford-Binet had high correlation between one another in terms
of validity (134).
In the 1940s, the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and the Minnesota Multiphasic
Personality Inventory (MMPI) were highly acclaimed due to its ability to measure human
In Personality Projection in the Drawing of the Human Figure, Manchover noticed that
children of the same mental age drew different pictures of a man (135-136).
Freud believed that sexual drives were the most important factor in determining a
person‟s behavior (136).
Mentally-handicapped individuals drawing human figures have notable differences to
that of a normal individual (137).
Gender ambiguity and identification associated with drawings such as the “third leg,”
elephant‟s trunk, or a tail (138).
Elizabeth Koppitz created the Human Figure Drawing (HFD) Test under the influence of
Goodenough‟s intelligence test and the projective tests (139).
Koppitz argues that a child‟s visual expression is equivalent to a verbal statement (139).
Head Start in the 1960s was instituted in America for disadvantaged children although
eugenics promoters like Arthur Jensen scrapped it under Nixon (139).
Drawing tests like the HFD can be administered outside the clinical environment as a
basic assessment tool especially for children who are negative or shy (140-141).
(145) SIGNIFICANCE TESTING: What it Tells Us, and What it Doesn‟t
Significance tests (also known as null-hypothesis significance tests)2include basic t-tests,
the F-tests of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and chi-square tests (x ) (146).
Statistically significant effect means notable differences between two data groups (146).
Statistical significance does not indicate the result being likely due to chance, incorrect
rejection of the null hypothesis, the null hypothesis being true, or the alternate hypothesis
being true (146-147).
Regression models are rarely used to predict new real-world data (147). Cohen and Gigerenzer encourage research