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Educational Psychology Final Exam Review.docx

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PSYC 3410
Elissa Rodkey

Kuhn Chapter 4 The Skills of InquiryLearning to learn is an objective that must rank high in any educators agenda the likelihood of achieving this depends on what we know about the nature of learningLearning is a strengthening of behaviour through repetitionThe cognitive revolution 1970 changed the conception of human learning as associations and habits of learning as change in understandingThese changes are examined via microgenetic methods that focus directly on the process of change itselfThe main goal of learning is to have students to come to understand the world around them so as to be able to function effectively in it and achieve their goalsEven young children construct mental models or theories of casual relations as a means of making sense of both the physical and social phenomena that they encounterMental models constitute a kind of core knowledge that enables us to achieve a satisfactory degree of prediction and control of our environmentA critical set of cognitive skills are the ones that enable us to extract information from the external world allowing these mental models to be constructed elaborated revised and updated Much of this knowledge acquisition particularly early in life occurs in an effortless unconscious mannerPeople form casual beliefs based on the accumulation of everyday observationsAdults and children do not differentiate between additive and interactive models when thinking about multiple factors affecting an outcomeAdults and children make inferences of causality about particular factors while ignoring the potential effects of others Their bases for declaring one factor casual and another noncasual may be faulty often they are satisfied with attributing a phenomenon to one possibility even though there could be several possible explanations but they are dismissed discountingThe mature mental model of casualty consists of multiple casual influences in a phenomenon that coexist and it is necessary to analyze the available evidence in order to conceptualize how these factors individually and jointly influence outcomesMental models ordinarily remain hidden from view one way to make them more observable is to present new evidence and ask an individual to interpret it Coordinating new evidence with existing mental models of a domain is exactly what students are asked to do in inquiry learningInquiry learning requires that students encounter new information and interpret it if warranted they are able to revise their existing understandings accordinglyIt is entirely reasonable that they will reject the new information because they find it flawed or irrelevantScaffolding is a learning concept that consists of a child learning an adult level skill it consists of the teacher in this case providing a structure that allows the child to reach a higher level then they would be able to achieve on their ownThe zone of proximal development is the difference between what the child can do on their own and what they can do with the teachers helpThe consciously controlled coordination of theory and evidence consists of an ability to accomplish the integration of what someone already knows and what they discovered from a new sourceAt the metacognitive level the level of thinking about thinking students are not clearly aware of whether a claim they are making is based on existing beliefs or new information therefore they are not in control of the process of theoryevidence coordinationThe metalevel management and control of knowing develops only gradually from early years on sufficient awareness needs to develop to enable an individual to answer the critical question how do I know in any contextThe awareness of a plausible mechanism that could explain a link between cause and effect is a more powerful factor motivating a casual inference than is evidence supporting the existence of a casual relationshipOnce the relevance of evidence is established students must come to see the analysis of it the identification of patterns and relationships and the coordination of what is observed with existing understandings as a path to enhance understanding Kuhn Chapter 5 Developing Inquiry SkillsThe structure underlying the database students investigate consists of a network of casual relationsThe goal of the inquiry of experience is to foster the development of inquiry skills not to teach science or other contentOmitting nonessential content from the presented data enable both the student and observer to focus on the processes by which one identifies makes use of and integrates new informationMicrogenetic analysis documents the changes that occur during a period of repeated engagement of an educational activity It is possible to track dual forms of change first in the students increasing understanding of the casual structure underlying the database of observations and second in advances in the investigative and inference strategies a student uses to generate knowledgeCharacteristics of intent participation includeo Learner integrated contributing o Motive is to contribute o Learning through keen attention o Social organization is collaborative o Coordination is nonverbal and verbal o Learning responsibility o AssessmentInquiryas the foundation of authentic inquiry the initial inquiry phase is crucial It is the phase in which the student identifies or not a purpose of the activity For inquiry to be meaningful students must believe there is something to find out distinguishable from what they already know and they must see themselves as engaging in inquiry activity for the purpose of finding it out and for the purpose of reconciling what they find out with what they already know
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