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MIDTERM 1 REVIEW NOTES Chapter 2: Studying Groups.pdf
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3430
Professor
Peter Papadogiannis
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter2StudyingGroupsChapter2StudyingGroupsMondayJune302014704PMMondayJune302014704PMAssessmentandmeasurementAssessmentandmeasurementInternalconsistencyisassociatedwiththemeasurementthatweareabouttoobtainInternalconsistencyisassociatedwiththemeasurementthatweareabouttoobtainassociatedwiththetoolitselfassociatedwiththetoolitselfMoreconsistentmorereliableMoreconsistentmorereliableConsistencywithintheassessmenttoolConsistencywithintheassessmenttoolNeedbalanceofreliabilityandvalidityNeedbalanceofreliabilityandvalidityValidityKshouldmeasurewhatisintendedtomeasureValidityKshouldmeasurewhatisintendedtomeasureOprahshappinessquizdoesnothavevalidityOprahshappinessquizdoesnothavevalidityPredictivevalidityKcollectnumbersatonepointoftimeandcompareforfuturePredictivevalidityKcollectnumbersatonepointoftimeandcompareforfuturenumbersnumbersEgMCATscoreshighSATcorrelatedwhighGPAEgMCATscoreshighSATcorrelatedwhighGPAReliabilityconsistencyReliabilityconsistencyDegreetowhichindvgroupoftesttakersareconsistentoverrepeatedDegreetowhichindvgroupoftesttakersareconsistentoverrepeatedapplicationsapplicationsmeasurethatconsistentlyyieldsthesameconclusionatdifferenttimesmeasurethatconsistentlyyieldsthesameconclusionatdifferenttimesReliabilityReliabilitySelfKreportMethodsKgroupmembersdescribetheirperceptionsandexperiencesSelfKreportMethodsKgroupmembersdescribetheirperceptionsandexperiencesTestretestreliabilityKusuallymeasuredbycomputingthecorrelationcoefficientbtwnTestretestreliabilityKusuallymeasuredbycomputingthecorrelationcoefficientbtwnscoresoftwoadministrationstenddohavenostructurenoscoringsystemscoresoftwoadministrationstenddohavenostructurenoscoringsystemInterraterreliabilityKiftwodifferentrattersscoredthesamescaleusingthescoringrulesInterraterreliabilityKiftwodifferentrattersscoredthesamescaleusingthescoringrulestheyshouldattainthesameresulttheyshouldattainthesameresultRelationshipbtwnreliabilityandvalidityRelationshipbtwnreliabilityandvalidityTeststhatarereliablearenotnecessaryvalidorpredictiveTeststhatarereliablearenotnecessaryvalidorpredictiveIfthereliabilityofapsychologicalmeasureincreasesthevalidityofthemeasureisIfthereliabilityofapsychologicalmeasureincreasesthevalidityofthemeasureisalsoexpectedtoincreasealsoexpectedtoincreaseValidreliablenotvalidreliablenotvalidnotreliabledoesntoccurvalidnotreliableValidreliablenotvalidreliablenotvalidnotreliabledoesntoccurvalidnotreliablePersonalityPersonalityMackinnonMackinnonPersonalityKfactorsinsidepersonthatexplainbehaviourPersonalityKfactorsinsidepersonthatexplainbehaviourSumtotaloftypicalwayofactingthinkingandfeelingthatmakesapersonuniqueSumtotaloftypicalwayofactingthinkingandfeelingthatmakesapersonuniqueTraittheorypeopledifferbasedonstableattributestraitsTraittheorypeopledifferbasedonstableattributestraitsTypetheorypplcanbesortedintocategorieseitheroneortheotherTypetheorypplcanbesortedintocategorieseitheroneortheotherknowdescriptionofhighandlowscorespersonalitytraitscoresknowdescriptionofhighandlowscorespersonalitytraitscoresTheBigfivepersonalityOCEANTheBigfivepersonalityOCEANOpennessOscoreOpennessOscorehighcreativeimaginativeopenflexibleadaptableindependenthighcreativeimaginativeopenflexibleadaptableindependentLowlesscreativepracticalrigidcloseKmindedsystematicconformingLowlesscreativepracticalrigidcloseKmindedsystematicconformingConscientiousnessCscoreConscientiousnessCscoreHighorganizedveryresponsiblefollowKthroughcarefulHighorganizedveryresponsiblefollowKthroughcarefulLowunorganizedmoreirresponsibledonotfollowthroughcarelessLowunorganizedmoreirresponsibledonotfollowthroughcarelessExtraversionEscorewhatyougetenergyfromExtraversionEscorewhatyougetenergyfromHighgetenergyfromhighKenergysourcespeopleappreciateothersociableHighgetenergyfromhighKenergysourcespeopleappreciateothersociableextravertstalkalotextravertstalkalotLowgetenergyfromlowKenergysourcesbookvspeopleretiredLowgetenergyfromlowKenergysourcesbookvspeopleretiredAgreeablenessAscorehowpplrelatetogroupsurroundingsAgreeablenessAscorehowpplrelatetogroupsurroundingsHighcareaboutpplthatareapartoftheirgrouptrustingsoftKheartedwithHighcareaboutpplthatareapartoftheirgrouptrustingsoftKheartedwithothersinterdependentothersinterdependentLowindependentmaynotthinkofwhatyouractionstodoothersruthlessLowindependentmaynotthinkofwhatyouractionstodoothersruthlesssuspicioussuspiciousNeuroticismNscoreworryscoreNeuroticismNscoreworryscoreHighveryworriedanxiousinsecureHighveryworriedanxiousinsecureLownotworriedcalmcollectedsecureLownotworriedcalmcollectedsecurePersonalitytypetheoryYongePersonalitytypetheoryYongeBelievedthatwehad4predicativepatternsBelievedthatwehad4predicativepatternsEachdimensionhasaletterassociatedwithitEachdimensionhasaletterassociatedwithitCategoricalassessmenttoolseitheronecategoryortheotherCategoricalassessmenttoolseitheronecategoryortheotherMBTIsimilartoBIGFIVEMBTIsimilartoBIGFIVEEmotionsEmotionsBasicEmotionsbasic6wearebornwithitordevelopovertimeinnateBasicEmotionsbasic6wearebornwithitordevelopovertimeinnateHappinessHappinessFearFearSadnessSadnessAngerAngerSurpriseSurpriseDisgustDisgustEmotionsweexperienceandfeelitsimilarlybutexpressitdifferentlyEmotionsweexperienceandfeelitsimilarlybutexpressitdifferentlygroupsinfluenceitovertimegroupsinfluenceitovertimeKnowdifferencebtwnemotionfeelingsandmoodKnowdifferencebtwnemotionfeelingsandmoodEmotionKexperiencegenerallyinreactiontostimulithatareaccompaniedbyEmotionKexperiencegenerallyinreactiontostimulithatareaccompaniedbyphysiologicalarousalandcharacteristicbehaviourhappinesssadnessfearsurprisephysiologicalarousalandcharacteristicbehaviourhappinesssadnessfearsurpriseangerdisgustangerdisgustEveryemotionissubjectiveintenseshortKtermEveryemotionissubjectiveintenseshortKtermFeelingssubjectiverepresentationofemotionFeelingssubjectiverepresentationofemotionMoodpervasiveandsustainedemotionalRthatcaninfluenceonesperceptionofMoodpervasiveandsustainedemotionalRthatcaninfluenceonesperceptionoftheworldtheworldlongKtermvaryindurationlongKtermvaryindurationJackMayerandSaloveyandcurosorJackMayerandSaloveyandcurosoremotionalintelligencetestKabilitytomonitoronesownandothersemotionsabletouseemotionalintelligencetestKabilitytomonitoronesownandothersemotionsabletouseyouremotionstofacilitatethinkingyouremotionstofacilitatethinking4skillsknowallofthemfortest4skillsknowallofthemfortestSelfKawarenessSelfKawarenessSocialawarenessSocialawarenessSelfKmanagementSelfKmanagementRelationshipmanagementRelationshipmanagementWillhaveselfandothercomponentWillhaveselfandothercomponentMSCEITMSCEITKgoesinorderforeveryemotionKgoesinorderforeveryemotion1perceivingoridentifyinglookatfacialfeaturesandemotionspecifictothatface1perceivingoridentifyinglookatfacialfeaturesandemotionspecifictothatface2facilitatingorusinglinkbtwncognitionandemotioneghowwouldyouinvolvepeople2facilitatingorusinglinkbtwncognitionandemotioneghowwouldyouinvolvepeopleinyourmovementwhatemotionswouldyouhaveinyourmovementwhatemotionswouldyouhave3understandingthesubKcomponentsofemotionsemotionhavecolour3understandingthesubKcomponentsofemotionsemotionhavecolour4manageKtheemotionsofothersandyourownmanagementishighestinprediction4manageKtheemotionsofothersandyourownmanagementishighestinpredictionEmotionalcontagionKenergythatacrowdgrouphasasawholenotinpartsoutsideofEmotionalcontagionKenergythatacrowdgrouphasasawholenotinpartsoutsideoftheindividualtheindividualFreudAlforddidnotbelieveyoucanmeasuregroupsenergyopposedthetheoryFreudAlforddidnotbelieveyoucanmeasuregroupsenergyopposedthetheoryThereisnogroupemotionalassessmentthatisreliableThereisnogroupemotionalassessmentthatisreliableJacobmorenaKpremiseofstudyiswhointeractswithwhowhodoyoulikeJacobmorenaKpremiseofstudyiswhointeractswithwhowhodoyoulikequestionsarebasedtoonepersonaboutothersingroupnoaboutgroupfunctionquestionsarebasedtoonepersonaboutothersingroupnoaboutgroupfunctionObservationalMethodsObservationalMethodsWilliamFootWhyteKfirsttorecordinfoobservationsmeasurementmethodWilliamFootWhyteKfirsttorecordinfoobservationsmeasurementmethodObservedcornergangsNortonsobservationalmeasuresObservedcornergangsNortonsobservationalmeasuresNortonswasareferencegroupNortonswasareferencegroupgrouporcollectivethatindividualsuseasastandardframeofreferencewhenselectinggrouporcollectivethatindividualsuseasastandardframeofreferencewhenselectingandappraisingtheirabilitiesattitudesorbeliefsincludesgroupsthatindividualsidentifyandappraisingtheirabilitiesattitudesorbeliefsincludesgroupsthatindividualsidentifywithandadmirewithandadmireObservationstartedascovertobservedfromafarpeopledidntknowtheywereObservationstartedascovertobservedfromafarpeopledidntknowtheywerebeingobservedbeingobservedCovertobservationshavefewerethicalissuethanovertCovertobservationshavefewerethicalissuethanovertStudybecameovertparticipantobservationinteractionStudybecameovertparticipantobservationinteractionParticipantobservationwasusedtostudyonlinegamingsearchrescueParticipantobservationwasusedtostudyonlinegamingsearchrescueteamsgangsmushroomcollectorsetcteamsgangsmushroomcollectorsetcHawthorneeffectHawthorneelectricalplantMayoandcolleagesHawthorneeffectHawthorneelectricalplantMayoandcolleagesFocusedonproductivityFocusedonproductivityFactorsvariableswerenotconsistentlightingmusicenvetcFactorsvariableswerenotconsistentlightingmusicenvetcConsistentfactorinthepresenceofothersperformanceincreasedConsistentfactorinthepresenceofothersperformanceincreasedEffectislesslikelywhenresearchersusecovertobservationmethodmoreEffectislesslikelywhenresearchersusecovertobservationmethodmorelikelyforovertlikelyforovertBalesinteractionprocessanalysisIPAclassifiedbehaviourinto2categoriesBalesinteractionprocessanalysisIPAclassifiedbehaviourinto2categoriesTaskandrelationshipbehavioursTaskandrelationshipbehavioursCodingsystemofinteractionsbtwnpeopleCodingsystemofinteractionsbtwnpeopleIncreasesobjectivitybymorerigidstructuregreatersystemsIncreasesobjectivitybymorerigidstructuregreatersystemsSolvetheobjectivityproblemingroupobserversbystructuringgroupobservationsSolvetheobjectivityproblemingroupobserversbystructuringgroupobservationsKnow4sectionsontheleftsocioemotionalrnxtaskareaattemptedanswersKnow4sectionsontheleftsocioemotionalrnxtaskareaattemptedanswersquestionsquestionsTextbookdetailsTextbookdetailsBainbridgesanalysisofonlinegamingcommunityworldofwarcraftindicatedonlineBainbridgesanalysisofonlinegamingcommunityworldofwarcraftindicatedonlinegroupsarenotthatdifferentfromgroupinphysicalofflineworldgroupsarenotthatdifferentfromgroupinphysicalofflineworldIPAandSYMLOGarebothstructuredobservationalmethodsIPAandSYMLOGarebothstructuredobservationalmethodsSelfreportincludeinterviewssurveysandsociometrySelfreportincludeinterviewssurveysandsociometrySociometryisgenerallyusedtomeasuregroupattractionstructureSociometryisgenerallyusedtomeasuregroupattractionstructureMostresearchersuseobservationalmethodsratherthenselfKreportmethodsMostresearchersuseobservationalmethodsratherthenselfKreportmethodsIncludestermssuchasstargatekeepercliquesIncludestermssuchasstargatekeepercliquesCasestudyCasestudyCaninvestigaterelationshipsbyexaminingspecificcasesCaninvestigaterelationshipsbyexaminingspecificcasesRelationshipbtwncohesivenessandteamperformanceinPittsburghpiratesRelationshipbtwncohesivenessandteamperformanceinPittsburghpiratesCanbeusedtostudydecisionmakingingroupsCanbeusedtostudydecisionmakingingroupsBonafideKstudyinggroupsinnaturalsettingsinsteadofinalabBonafideKstudyinggroupsinnaturalsettingsinsteadofinalabBehaviouraltheoristsbelievethebestwaytoimprovegroupsistorewardthemembersBehaviouraltheoristsbelievethebestwaytoimprovegroupsistorewardthememberswhentheyperformwellwhentheyperformwellSocialexchangetheoryKindvstrivetomaximizetheirrewardsandminimizetheircostsSocialexchangetheoryKindvstrivetomaximizetheirrewardsandminimizetheircosts
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