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TEST 2 notes Ch 4: Group Formation.pdf
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3430
Professor
Peter Papadogiannis
Semester
Summer

Description
Ch 4 Group FormationMonday July 7 2014816 PMAbraham Maslowhierarchy of needsMany animal groups have motivation to affiliate with others to fulfil their basic needsWe need others for our safety needs We differentiate ourselves from other groups in higherorder steps 34 Psychological needsHelp us grow growth needs cannot grow without intimacy and belonging Help us get to 5 selfactualization Animal in groupsKevin Richardson Big five personality Not all experience groups the same wayIntroversion and extroversion extraverts are drawn to other ppl and groups and introverts avoid them Extraverts get energy from ppl motivated to affiliate with other pplMost of energy is from indv sociableMore assertive especially in group env low extraversion not always shy not as motivated as extraverts to get energy from people Across all cultures extraverts have higher levels of positive affect than introverts do EQI emotional intelligence inventory Extraverts thought they had more emotional selfawareness than introverts Extraverts also though they had higher perception of assertiveness empathic optimistic happy Introverts had higher actual amounts of selfawareness than introverts How does the other 4 scales influence the formation of groups agreeableness conscientiousness openness neuroticismAgreeable wants harmonyRelationalitylooks at values attitudes and outlooks that facilitate connections with others formation of groupsHigh connection with the big five not independent Tim Van Horn Wants to create a Canadian mosaic High level of relationality Social motivationNeed for affiliation people with high need for affiliation tend to join more groups and spend more time in them need for moreconnectionsFear rejectionNeed for intimacy tend to join more groups in order to find close relationships with others deeper level of connectionNeed for power need to influence others need for control in groups Power over pplpower with ppl FIRO fundamental interpersonal relations orientationrobust Indv need to receive and express inclusion control affection in groupsKnow broad scales not subcomponentsInclusion forming new relationships and associating with othersDetermines the extent of contact and prominence that a person seeksControl relates to decision making influences and persuasion btwn pplExtent of power dominance that a person seeks Affection relates to emotional ties and warm connections btwn pplDetermines the extent of closeness and a person seeks Wanted score extent to which you want or will accept that behaviour from othersOrganization business job satisfactionDifferences btwn express and wantwant more power vs doing itExpressed score extent to which you will initiate behaviour The concepts of need for affiliation and need for power are similar in that both assume that people join groups to satisfy basic needsRogers selfconceptSelf person who you are through your own selfconceptIdeal self person I would like to be Groups influences ideal self Congruence consistencies btwn the two Greater the distance the more conflict Though it was external env that created this concept Believed how we perceived env is what caused conflict Social anxiety Emotions Approach vs avoidance Social anxiety avoidance of groups Fear of being evaluated by others Social anxiety disorder Impairment in association with at least 13OccupationacademicallyCannot write inclass examCognitivelyCannot come to workSocially Social anxiety comes in 3 categories of symptoms Somatic feel it in bodyChest tighteningCognitive Fear of feeling ignorant Affectiveterror actual or perceivedUnderstanding stress as a response General adaptation syndrome GAS Stress is nonspecific experience in the body to a stimulus Everyone experiences the GAS when under extreme stress Alarm reaction Autonomic NS prepare the body for fight or flight Resistance phaseAdaptation as a person cope with stressorsBodily signs characteristic of alarm reaction stage virtually disappear Exhaustion Physical signs and symptoms of stress originally evident in the alarm reaction reappearWhen you can no longer adapt to stressor Resources become depleted Disaffiliate behaviour reduce social contact avoidanceInnocuous sociability merge into groups background limited interaction w groupHolmes and Rahe Social readjustment scale Wanted to find out what are the biggest stressors in the peoples lives 1 social stressor death of a spouseMost stressors have social context Affiliation Social comparison gaining information from other peoples reactions evaluating oneself to others and the env Leon Festinger2 factors theory greater cognitive clarityless anxietyGreater mental awareness or physiology Affiliate because we need info which is crucial to problem solving Goal is to gain cognitive clarity Affiliation brings people in contact with each other and attraction bonds individuals into groupsPeople engage in social comparison for many reasons validation evaluation on selfGroup affiliationSchachter experiments with two groups of college women1st group low anxiety with low shock no harm12 wanted to wait with others when waiting2nd group high anxiety with high shock with harm23 wanted to affiliate with others when waitingMisery loves company60 wanted to wait w someone who experienceed same treatmentMisery loves miserable companyIncrease in selfesteem Downward comparison bolsters sense of competenceUpward social comparisonhope and motivation Abraham Tessers selfevaluation maintenance SEM model ppl affiliate w indv who do not outperform them in areas are very relevant to their selfesteem Tennis athletes Venus older sister best player at first Serena younger sister became better than VenusSerena may got to Venus about tennis issues to boost selfesteem but Venus may not go to Serena since S is a threat better than herGroup attractionBased on Theodore Newcombs studies on acquaintance processgroup formationProximity principleppl tend to likeinteract w those who are situated near byElaboration principlegroups often emerge when groups as complex sys grow as additional elements ppl become lined to original membersTwo roommates in dorm expand as indv get to know others and group growsSimilarity principleppl like those who are similar to them in some wayIe homophilly similarity in attitudes values appearanceetcSean Mackinnon ppl were more likely to sit beside someone matched them by hair colour ad hair length than by chancePpl were asked how much they perceived others to have similar values ppl chose who looked physically similar to themComplementarity principleppl like others whose qualities complement their own qualities Similarity is more common than complimentary Interchange compatibilitygroups members have similar expectations about groups intimacy control and inclusiveness Originator compatibilityppl who have dissimilar but complimentary needs for a need for control inclusion and affection join others who wish to accept these behavioursEg prof and friend that go golfing together Reciprocity principleliking tends to be mutual dislike those who reject usTransitivitygroup interaction influences transitivityliking of one person to the next to the nextetcMinimax principleindv are attracted to groups that offer them max rewardsand min costsThe reciprocity principle and the minimax both focus on the exchanges that occur between group membersInterpersonal attraction btwn indvJohn ThibautHarold Kelly social exchange theoryRelationships bargains where max outcome sought w min investment costs rewards commitment Comparison level CLstandard by which indv evaluates the desirability of group membership determined by comparison level of prior experience w higher rewardshigher CLComparison level for alternatives Clstandard by which indv alt evaluate the quality of other groups that they may joinlowest level of outcomes a member will acceptTextbook DetailsWomen are more likely to join smaller more supportive groups than men Groups tend to display tendandbefriend responses to longterm rather than imminent threats Individuals who are shy are evaluated more positively in Eastern cultures than Western ones Attachment theory assumes that early life experiencesspecifically how you bonded with your primary caregiverinfluences your relationships including your memberships throughout your entire life secure fearfuldismissingPreoccupiedNewcombs 1961 research supports the adage birds of a feather flock togetherWe tend to like others who are similar to us because they reassure us that our beliefs are accurate similarity suggests that future interactions will be free of conflict similarity increases feelings of unity with others disliking those who are similar to us is psychologically distressing An exchange theory of group formation suggests that groups form when members invest in the relationship by giving one another rewards The value of a group membership that was once very satisfying drops down below your comparison level According to social exchange theory you will terminate your membership if it drops below your CLalt
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