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Test 2 notes Ch 6: Group structure.pdf

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York University
PSYC 3430
Peter Papadogiannis

Ch 6 Group structure Monday July 14 2014642 PMGroup structure the complex set of relations that organizes the group into an integrated whole They are relatively fixed Determined byNormsRolesIntermember relations and communication Some structure pieces are observable and others emerge over time Eg some companies give you their mission statement right awaycode of conduct for YorkU courses observable Behaviour structure at library floor 5 vs floor 1 nonobservableChange of structure is difficult to doGroup processes are shaped by influential group structures unobservable and observable that dictate in group expectations about members roles and networks of connections among the membersNorms Emergent selforganizing consensual and often implicit standards that describe what behaviours should and should not be performed in a given context Deliberately designed explicit for a certain reason Eg assignment due at certain time Regulates behaviourPrescriptive normspreferably positively sanctioned behaviours normal course of action encouraged Saying thank you Proscriptive normsprohibited negatively sanctioned behaviours discouraged In Canada kissing a stranger vs in Greece The man stands up for someone elses property and states thatpeople should not be vandalizing others propertyDescriptive normshow ppl typically act feel and think in a given situation most likely happens Walking around campus w laptop bagPpl walking by recreational activities in parks while car got vandalized Injunctive normsdescriptive norms with evaluation componenthow ppl should act feel and think in a given situation These are open to sanctions out shouldGood or bad of a person or group of indvThe wife keeps an eye on the vandalism but does not intervene until her husband arrives for safetyOrganizational citizenship behaviour OCBBehaviour that goes beyond what is expected in workplace when not because they are being evaluated or judged because that is who they are not being asked toWant the group to function effectivelyAltruismhelpful behaviours directed twd indv or group within the organizationGeneralized compliancebehaviour that is helpful to the broader organization Data are compromised because ppl selfreports have ulterior motives since they are being evaluated Muzafer Sherifs studies of the development of norms in groupsAutokinetic effectall participants were placed In a dark room and shown a pinhole of light and asked how far it was by yourself firstIn general range of 112 most said 24 inches indicated that norms emerge as members reach a consensus through reciprocal influence Convergencein actions thoughts and emotions occurs over timeOne or two ppl were later put in the same room with that indv Ppl observation perspective change in presence of others Members responses converged in the middle Norm of the group became norm of indv when placed in new group Internalized norms New group members brought into group norm is usually still solidified little changeEg new president same philosophy Norms in groupsConformity tendency for ppl to adopt the behaviour and opinions presented by other group memberInformational influencewanting to be correct and understand the right way to actEg group members influence your test answers even though their answer might be wrongNormative influencewanted to be liked and accepted by othersAccepting the groups decision despite the conflictPluralistic ignorance members may privately disagree with the norm but they assume they are the only who do and so the norm remains in place Social tuning when indv actions become similar to actions of those around themLower level of importance generally has less adherence Less members that identify with normdecreased performanceLess members follow the normdecreased performanceNorms are selfgenerating and stable they often resists revisiongeneration paradigm Roles The types of behaviours expected of indv who occupy particular positions w in the group Independent of the indvthere are responsibilities specific to the role and the groupRoletakingperceiving role requirements self and others role enactmentrole sending Flexible to an extent each person may play the role different but doesnt stray too much Structure interaction create patterns of actions biker gang Fulfill two basic needs task ach and socialRole that you play determine if you are task orientated or social orientated Role differentiationthe emergence and patterning of rolerelated actions Stanford prison study Zimbardoformal vs informal As the group develops more roles emerge Roles tend to become specialized over time Role ambiguityunclear expectations about the behaviours to be performed by indv what ought and not be performed In countries where power distance is high role ambiguity tends to be low Interrole conflicta form of role conflict that occurs when someone plays multiple roles w in a groups and multiple roles are not consistent with one anotherEg middle managers have to go back and forthIntrarole conflicta form of role conflict that occurs when the behaviours that make up a single role are incongruous often resulting from inconsistent expectations on the part if the person who occupies the role Eg conflict from working with employees and having to fire them by being a managerThe likelihood that different people will occupy the task and relationship roles in the group increases when the group is experiencing conflictFunctional roles Benne and SheatsTask relationship individualMoreland and Levines group socialization theoryTypes of Members prospective new full marginal and former exmember Phases investigation socialization maintenance resocialization and remembrance Processes recruitmentreconnaissance accommodationassimilation role negotiation traditionreminiscence Transition Points entry acceptance divergence exit Status networksStatus Differentiationthe gradual rise of some members to positions of greater power accompanied by decreases in the authority exercised by other members Examplesmilitary rank sport captains Competition for Statuspecking orders A stable ordered pattern of individual variations in prestige status and authority among group members ExpectationStates Theory people generally take two types cues when formulating expectations about ourselves and other group members Diffuse Status Characteristicsgeneral personal qualities such as age race and ethnicity Specific Status Characteristicstask specific behaviouralpersonal characteristics that people consider when evaluating competency eg experience education ability Perceptions of Statusimpact of group members expectations on the status organizing process Status generalization when irrelevant characteristics influence status allocation eg celebrity physical appearance Solos Denied Statusbeing the only representative of their social categorybeing categorized by it Attraction NetworksSociometric Differentiationdevelopment of stronger ties between some members of the group while a decrease in the quality of relationship between others of the group Four generations at workTraditionalists born 19221943 Baby Boomers born 19431960 retiringOptimism Team orientation Personal gratification Involvement Personal growthSelfhelp Generally give feedback Generation X born 19601980 Diversity techno literacy fun and informality selfreliance and confidence plagmatism and belief in the truth enjoy feedback but does always seek itGeneration YMillenials born 19802000 largestOptimistic coddled fawned over fast pasted lives feel civic duty ultraconfident achievement oriented respect diversity seek feedbackGeneration ZDigital Natives born late 1990s No specific date yetDont need to know yearsGeneration is categorized by date of birth shared experiencesTextbook DetailsPluralistic ignorance occurs when group members assume their reaction is unique and outofstep with the group and so keep their opinions private SYMLOG offers a comprehensive analysis of group structure based on role status and attraction Milgram 1992 instructed his research assistants to ask people on a busy New York City subway to give up their seats Milgram found that his research assistants frequently could not carry out the request Differences in authority are to differences in attraction as status differentiation is to sociometric differentiation For simple tasks efficiency increases as network centralization increases Given the relationship between network position and satisfaction the majority of the group members will be more satisfied when working in a decentralized networkDensity of group relations bidirectional ties possibleBidirection tiesnn12
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