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PSYC 3430 - Test 3 Notes (Summer 2012)

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PSYC 3430
Peter Papadogiannis

PSYC 3430 - Test 3 Notes Chapter 8: Power Obedience to Authority Bertand Russell (1938) concluded that the fundamental concept in social science is Power, in the same sense in which Energy is the fundamental concept in physics. Social power: the capacity to influence others, even when others try to resist influence. Power can be direct or indirect, depending on norms, group, or values. Constructive power vs. destructive power (Deutsch). The Milgram Experiments (Obedience to Authority) Voice-feedback condition: the learners shouts and pleas can be heard through the wall. Proximity condition: the learner sat in the same room as the teacher, voicing the same complaints used in the voice-feedback condition. Touch-proximity condition: the learner sat next to the teacher and received his shock when he put his hand on a shock plate. Low surveillance condition: experimenter continues to give orders to the participant by telephone, but lost the ability to monitor the subjects actions. Ordinary-man variation: added fourth member to the group, who was given the task of recording the shock levels used. Authority-as-victim condition: experimenter agreed to take the role of the learner, supposedly to convince a reluctant learner that the shocks were not harmful. Peer administers shock condition: subjects do not have to administer the shock but the confederate does, therefore Milgram confirmed that less people disobey when in groups. Jerry Burger replicated Milgrams study to observe the power of the situation. Sources of Power Power bases: six key sources of social power in a group (French & Raven). o Reward power: power based on ones control over the distribution of rewards (personal and impersonal) given or offered to group members. o Coercive power: power based on ones ability to punish or threaten others who do not comply with requests or demands. Bullying is a form of coercive interpersonal influence. o Legitimate power: power based on an individuals socially sanctioned claim to a position or role that gives the occupant the right to require and demand compliance with his or her relatives. o Referent power: power based on group members identification with, attraction to, or respect for the powerholder. Charisma: Max Weber believed that it was the ascription of extraordinary or supernatural acumen, ability, and value to a leader by followers. o Expert power: power that derives from subordinates assumption that the powerholder possesses superior skills and abilities. o Informational power: power based on the potential use of informational resources, including rational argument, persuasion, or factual data. Thomas Blass confirmed the power of the experimenter in the Milgram study and warned of negative consequences based on the coercive power explanation. Power tactics: specific strategies used to influence others, usually to gain a particular objective or advantage. Such strategies include soft and hard, rational and nonrational, and unilateral and bilateral. Kramer believes that certain people consistently rely on coercion to influence others. Raven drew a distinction between impersonal and personal rewards. Power Processes Social Dominance Orientation (SDO): Dispositional tendency to accept and even prefer circumstances that sustain social inequalities, combined with a general preference for hierarchical social structures. Communal orientation vs. exchange orientation. Interpersonal Complementarity Hypothesis: Predicted tendency for certain behaviors to evoke behaviors from others that are congruous with the initial behavior (Carson). Zimbardos Stanford Prison Study Zimbardo believed that the participants in a given power situation would become too immersed in their roles, including himself as a prison warden. o Lucifer Effect: The transformation of benign individuals into morally corrupted ones by powerful, but malevolent, social situations. o Agentic State: psychological state that occurs when subordinates in an organized status hierarchy experience such a marked reduction in autonomy that they are unable to resist authorities orders. Foot-in-the-door technique (or behavioral commitment): a method of influence in which the influencer first makes a very small request that the target will probably agree to. Once the target agrees to the minor request, there is a higher likeliness that a more important or larger request by the influencer will be agreed to. Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE): tendency to overestimate the casual influence of dispositional factors and underemphasize the casual influence of situational factors. People often blame the individual personalities rather than the larger group force at work. John Darley explains that many evil actions are not the volitional products of individual evil-doers. Instead, they are in some sense societal products in which a complex series of social factors interact to cause individuals to commit multiple acts of stunning evil. How do psychologists understand such transformations of human character? Dispositional: Inside of individuals: "the bad apples" Situational: External: "The Bad Barrel" Systemic: Broad influences such as political, economic, and legal power: "The Bad Barrel-Makers." The Metamorphic Effects of Power Approach/inhibition theory: integrative conceptual analysis of the transformative effects of power that finds power to be psychologically and behaviorally activating but the lack of power inhibiting. Power = Approach Behavior. Powelessness = Inhibition. David Kipnis (1974) believed that powerful people tend to be more behaviorally oriented, but in some cases that means they use their power unnecessarily. o Power motivation: the need for power, more vigorously than others. Mandate Phenomenon: tendency for leaders to overstep boundaries of authority when they feel they have support from the group. Iron Law of Oligarchy: Robert Michels principle of political and social control that individuals in power tends to remain in power and enhance it. Disruptive contagion (ripple effect): conflict and rebellion against authority. Pratkanis and Aronson: How to be a Cult Leader? Revolutionary coalition: subgroup formed within the larger group that seeks to disrupt or change the groups authority structure. Reactance: A complex emotional and cognitive reaction that occurs when individuals feel that their freedom to make choices has been threatened or eliminated. Herbert Kelman identified three basic reactions that people display in response to coercive influence. Kelmans three-step model of conversion explains how groups convert recruits into fervent members over time. Compliance, Identification, and Internalization. o Identification occurs when the target of the influence admires and imitates the leader. Internalization occurs when the target adopts the induced behavior because it is congruent with his value system. Actions reflect personal goals rather than the powerholders. Psychopathy: Egocentric, deceitful, shallow, callous, lack of empathy or remorse, thrill- seeking, impulsive individuals who use and manipulate others. Hare describes them as human predators without conscience. DSM-IV: Personality Disorders: Anti-Social Personality Disorder. o Hare & Babiaks Business Scan (B-Scan). Used to detect sociopaths in offices. Destructive Leadership: Destructive Leaders + Susceptible Followers (conformers or colluders) + Conducive Environments. o Destructive Leaders hav
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