PSYC 3430 - Test 2 Notes
Chapter 4: Formation
Big Five Theory: Recognizes that people differ from each other in many ways, but it
assumes that the five dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness,
neuroticism, openness) summarized describe the essential ways in which people vary.
Extraversion: First discovered by Carl Jung, it is the tendency to move toward people or
away from people. Relationality: The degree to which one’s values, attitudes, and
outlooks emphasize, and facilitate establishing and maintaining connection to others.
Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO): William Schutz identified three
basic needs that can be satisfied with groups (inclusion, control, and affection). FIRO-B
is the scale that differentiates the need to express and the need to be wanted.
o High expression (e) and wantedness (w) classifies optimism, low e and w classify
pessimism, moderate e and w classified as flexible, etc.
Attachment style: One’s basic cognitive, emotional, and behavioral orientation when in a
relationship with others (fearful, preoccupied, dismissing, and secure).
The factors that determine when a group will form depends on people (personality traits
and qualities), situations (dangerous situations, Mavens & Connectors’ Tipping Point by
Gladwell), and interpersonal relationships.
Luna was a 6 year old orca who was separated from his pod for 4 years since the age of 2.
During the 4 years, Luna developed a need for companionship with humans.
Common social motivations of joining groups include the need for affiliation, the need
for intimacy, and the need for power.
Personal factors as energy: Introverts and Extroverts draw energy to feel the
belongingness in groups, but each from different sources.
o Agreeableness being a very important trait to formation.
o Personal factors that allow individuals to come together.
Misery Loves Company: Stanley Schachter believed that most people would choose to
join with other people to gain the information they need to allay their anxiety.
Misery Loves Miserable Company: Schachter suggest that people seek out those who
face the same threat and so are knowledgeable.
Embarrassed Misery Avoids Company: People sometimes refrain from joining others
because they do not wish to embarrass themselves.
Self-Evaluation Maintenance (SEM) model: Abraham Tesser suggests that people often
graciously celebrate others’ accomplishments, but not when they are bested in a domain
that they value greatly. In such cases, resentment, envy, and shame can be triggered.
Carl Rogers’s Self Concept has the congruence between the self and ideal self. One
perspective is that our self-concept is constantly changing and malleable.
Emotion is a positive or negative experience generally in reaction to stimuli that are
accompanied by physiological arousal and characteristic behavior. Our Rolodex of
experiences is that more positive experiences should increase motivation for
belongingness vs. negative experiences. Future behavior is impacted. Social anxiety and phobia are characterized by negative (avoidance) and positive
(seeking behavior) prior experiences of joining a group. Impairments are found in three
different areas: Cognitive, Social, Occupational (or academics), but it is possible to have
more than one of these three impairments at the same time. Avoidance results from this.
Social anxiety from a biological perspective:
o Amygdala: emotional component of the brain. Bases mental survival mode.
o Hippocampus: memories and past experiences.
o Prefrontal Cortex: analytical proportion of the brain.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): Seyle believes that stress is the nonspecific
response of the body to any demand made upon it.
o Step 1: Fight vs. Flight; Step 2: Resistance Phase; Step 3: Exhaustion to body
Innocuous Sociability: merge into the group’s background.
Proximity Principle: The tendency for individuals to form interpersonal relations with
those who are close by. Elaboration Principle: Newcomb describes this as the tendency
for groups to expand as members form dyadic associations with someone who is not in
the group and thereby draw the nonmember into the group.
Similarity Principle: Newcomb describes this as people being attracted to those who are
similar to them in some way. Homophily: Similarity of the members of a group in
attitudes, values, demographic characteristics, etc.
Complementary Principle: The tendency for group members to like people who are
dissimilar to them in ways that complement their personal qualities.
Interchange compatibility exists when group members have similar expectations about
the group’s intimacy, control, and inclusiveness.
Originator compatibility exists when people have dissimilar, but complementary needs
with regard to expressing and receiving control, inclusion, and affection.
Comparison Level (CL): The standard by which individuals evaluate the desirability of
group membership in John Thibaut and Harold Kelley’s social exchange theory.
Comparison Level for alternatives (CLalt): The standard by which individuals evaluate
the quality of other groups that they may join in the social exchange theory.
Chapter 5: Cohesion and Development
The Nature of Cohesion (social, task, perceived, emotional, etc.)
Festinger, Schachter, and Back (1950) defined cohesion as “the total field of forces which
act on members to remain in the group.” Carron, Brawley, and Widmeyer (1998) defined
cohesion as “a dynamic process that is reflected in the tendency of a group to stick
together and remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the
satisfaction of member needs.” Mudrack (1989) stated that cohesion “seems intuitively
easy to understand and describe, but failing to translate into an ease of definition.”
Collective efficacy: the belief that the group is capable of organizing and executing the
actions required to attain the group’s goals and successfully complete its tasks.
Esprit de corps: a feeling of unity, commitment, confidence, and enthusiasm for the group
shared by most or all of the members. Cognitive Dissonance: A psychological process first proposed by Leon Festinger that
occurs when an individual simultaneously holds two conflicting cognitions.
Hogg: social attraction vs. personal attraction
Carron’s general conceptual model of cohesion offered four general antecedents
(foundations) of cohesion: environmental, personal, leadership, and team factors.
Cohesion and Commitment Overtime
Stages of Group Development: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning.
o Tuckman’s five stage model of group development: orientation stage, conflict
stage, structure development stage, work stage, and dissolution stage.
Successive state theory: Specifies the usual order of the phases of group development.
Robert Bales’ equilibrium (cyclical) model assumes that group members strive to
maintain a balance between accomplishing the task and enhancing the quality of the
interpersonal relationships within the group.
Bales’ punctuated equilibrium model assumes group change gradually overtime but the