Study Guides (248,518)
Canada (121,606)
York University (10,209)
Psychology (1,203)
PSYC 3480 (44)
Final

womens psych final notes.docx

44 Pages
297 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3480
Professor
James Check
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 8 Love Relationships The Ideal Romantic Partner - North American Research o Sexual partners  Physical attractiveness o Marriage partners  Honesty  Personality  Intelligence o Personal Ads  Studies show men more likely than women to emphasize physical attractiveness in describing an ideal partner  Women more likely than men to emphasize financial status in describing ideal partner o Do nice guys finish last?  More women like “kind, attentive” male characteristics  Nice guys finish first - Cross Cultural Research o Cultural traditions  In general, women are more likely than men to believe that a partner should be well educated and have good financial prospects.  Men are more likely to believe that a partner should have physical attractiveness Explanation for Gender Differences in Preference Patterns - Evolutionary Psychology o Passing on genes to the next generation o Men should prefer young, attractive, healthy looking women o Women should look for commitment o Criticisms  Not supported by research  Highly speculative  No genetic mechanism  Same-gender relationships  Both men and women are interested in long-term relationships - Social Roles Approach o Social roles and socialization explain preference patterns o Men and women occupy different social roles, they experience different social opportunities and social disadvantages o Culture does have an effect on mate preferences o Women’s limited financial opportunities are related to preference patterns Characteristics of Heterosexual Love Relationships - Gender Comparisons o Friendship o Liking, commitment, satisfaction o Sadness, depression, hurt, loneliness o Trust, caring, honesty, respect o Strategies for maintaining a romantic relationship  Acting cheerful, expressing love for the person - Factors Related to Satisfaction with the Relationship o Friendship o Skill at expressing emotions o Feminist romantic partners  Women who had feminist romantic partners tended to report more stable relationships, as well as greater sexual satisfaction in comparison to those with nonfeminist partners - Breaking Up o Men and women report similar negative emotions o Women feel more joy and relief o Picking up the signals  Women are more sensitive to potential problems in a relationship and may anticipate a breakup, or worry about potential danger signs  A woman may be better at picking up signs of discontent and as a result are less shocked when a breakup occurs o Coping—blame, distractions  Men and women equally likely to blame themselves; equally likely to take drugs, alcohol  Men more likely to distract themselves; women more likely to blame partner for breakup o Expectations about getting married  Women significantly more than men to eagerly anticipate getting married o Average Ages of First Marriage  Canada: 28 for women, 30 for men  US: 25 for women, 27 for men o Marriage Rates and Ethnicity  As of 2003, 63% of US women were married  In Afganistan, more than half of women married before 16, ¾ of which are arranged Marital Satisfaction - Satisfaction During Various Periods of Marriage o Newlyweds  Young married couples happiest of all age groups o Expectations  A few years after wedding, many married people report feeling less romantic due to different expectations of marriage o Changes o Conflict  Couples married at least 35 years have less conflict in relationship  Reduced conflict over parenting issues as well as increase in economic resources - Gender Comparisons in Marital Satisfaction o Women more likely to wish for changes o Women more sensitive to problems in relationship o Gender similarities in marital satisfaction - Characteristics of Happy Marriages o Emotional stability o Good communication skills and understanding o More positive comments and expressions of affection, rather than negative comments and responses o Strong conflict-resolution skills o Trust in the other person o Mutual support o Belief that each spouse is genuinely concerned about the other’s well being o Flexibility o Equal sharing of household tasks o Equal sharing in decision making o Explanatory patterns  Happily married couples interpret their spouses actions in a more positive light than unhappily married couples Distribitution of Power in Marriages - Traditional Marriage o Husband more dominant than wife, and both partners maintain traditional gender roles o Wife can make decisions about household and child care, but man has ultimate authority in family decisions o Husband protects wife, and controls money o Especially common among people from a conservative religious background - Egalitarian Marriage o Both partners share power equally, without traditional gender roles o Wife and husband have equal responsibility for housework, child care, finances, and decision making. o Emphasize companionship and sharing Marriage and Women of Color - Latinas o Machismo  Belief that men must show their manhood by being strong, sexual, and even violent, clearly dominant over women in relationships (also men should not do housework) o Marianismo  Women must be chaste until marriage, must also be passive and long suffering, giving up their own needs to help their husbands and children  Based on Catholic representation of Virgin Mary o Most Latina/o couples do not adopt these extremely traditional patterns - Black Women o Economic differences  Most research done on economically poor families, generalizing for all Black families o Women often working outside the home and being strong figures in the home o Egalitarian Decision-Making  Most families showed similarity to egalitarian model of decision making - Asian American Women o Role of ethnicity  Parents expect children to marry someone from their own ethnic group, and children typically do so  Conflict between traditional customs and contemporary gender roles when recently emigrating from Asia  Cultural influences Divorce - Cohabitation and Divorce o Couples who live together before marriage are more likely to get divorced o Cohabitation does not necessarily cause divorce - The Decision to Divorce o Wives initiate divorce more often than husbands do o Reasons for divorce  Physical or emotional abuse  Infidelity  Drug or alcohol abuse - Psychological Effects on Divorce o Transitions and separations o Stress, depression, anger o Positive feelings  Women who feel constrained by a relationship also feel relief - Financial Effects on Divorce o A woman’s financial situation is almost always worse following a divorce, especially if she has children o Many fathers fail to pay child support o Black mothers are even more likely than White mothers to face financial problems Terms: lesbian, sexual minority, heterosexism The Psychological Adjustment of Lesbians - Homosexuality is not a mental disorder - The average lesbian is as well adjusted as the average heterosexual woman - In some studies, lesbians higher in self-sufficiency, self-confidence, and ease of decision making - Those who have experienced hate crimes more likely to suffer from depression, anxiety, substance abuse - Lesbians who accept their lesbian identity have higher self-esteem than those who have not accepted their lesbian identity. - Community & Faith o Many lesbians create their own communities, and warm, supportive networks develop from the “families” they choose Characteristics of a Lesbian Relationship - The Beginning of a Relationship o Dependability o Personality o Friendship o Emotional intimacy - Equality in Lesbian Relationships o Equal decision-making o Housework - Satisfaction o Satisfaction similar to heterosexual couples and gay male couples o Stronger relationship quality o Fewer conflicts o Relationship Commitment o Psychological Intimacy - Breaking Up o Similar to heterosexual breakup pattern o Same mix of emotions o Fewer factors preventing breakup o Less support for relationship o Lack of support after breakup (less devastating than heterosexual relationship) Lesbian Women of Color - Triple Barrier o Extra barrier because their culture has even more traditional views of women than mainstream European American culture - Intersectionality – consider several social categories together rather than independently - Cultural Barriers - Invisibility o Due to potential rejection colored lesbian women do not adopt strong lesbian identity - Community Support Legal Status of Lesbian Relationships - Marriage - Personal, Fairness, & Political Reasons - Practical Reasons - Countries & states permitting same-gender marriage o Permitted in Canada, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Argentina, Sweden, Belgium, Iceland, South Africa; limited partnership in Austria, Denmark, Hungary, Switzerland Bisexual Women - Characteristics of Bisexual Women o Flexible Identity o Adjustment & satisfaction o Role of ethnicity  Mixed heritage consistent with their bisexuality - Attitudes Toward Bisexual Women o Rejection by both heterosexual and lesbian communities o Violating categories  People with low tolerance for ambiguity feel uncomfortable around bisexuals - Fluidity of Female Sexual Orientation o Traditional Model—unhappiness, questioning identity o Diamond’s research—stable vs. fluid  Some women described a “classic” development of their lesbian identity. These stable lesbians had focused on girls and women during childhood, and the interest continued through adolescence  A larger number of women could be classified as fluid lesbians because they had questioned or changed their lesbian sexual adentity at some point. o “Unlabeled” women  Two thirds of the women considered themselves to be unlabeled women, disliking having to fit themselves into someone else’s labels or categories Theoretical Explanations About Sexual Orientation - Questions about Heterosexuality o Biological Explanations  Lack of research with lesbian women  Genetic factors  Hormonal factors  Brain structures  Twin studies o The Social Constructionist Approach  Culture creates sexual categories  We use these categories to organize our thoughts about our sexuality  Reject essentialist approach  Constructing heterosexual identity  Sexuality as fluid and flexible  Reevaluating our lives  Conscious choice o The Dynamic Systems Approach  Sexual orientation may change over time  Role of situations and interpretations  Changes may not occur in a systematic, linear fashion  Experiences fluid and complex  Combining approaches - Characteristics of Single Women o More likely to work outside the home o Choosing not to marry o Psychological distress, life span, independence  Single women score higher than married women in independence and have less psychological stress o Adjustment - Attitudes Toward Single Women o Singlism – bias against people who are not married  Single women receive poorer service and less respect at restaurants - Advantages & Disadvantages of being single o Freedom o Privacy o Self-knowledge o Lonliness o Social networks - Single Women of Color o Little research o Unmarried-daughter role o Lack of appropriate partner o Supportive friendships & family o Pursuing advanced education Chapter 9 SEXUALITY Background on Women’s Sexuality Theoretical Perspectives - Biases o Androcentric emphasis o Heterosexist bias o Biological framework o Essentialism  Argues that gender is a basic, stable characteristic that resides within an individual - Social Constructionist Approach o Argues that individuals and cultures construct or invent their own versions of reality based on prior experiences, social interactions and beliefs  Eg. North American female sexual desires rarely mentioned, where other cultures consider women very sexual - Female Sexual Anatomy o Mons pubis o Labia majora  Large lips o Labia minora  Small lips o Clitoral hood o Clitoris o Vagina - Sexual Responses o General Phases o Masters & Johnson  Excitement phase • Sexually aroused by touching and erotic thoughts; blood rushes to the genital area, causing vastocongestion (swelling caused by accumulation of blood)  Plateau Phase • Clitoris shortens and draws back under the hood; clit now extremely sensitive • Clitoral hood is moved by thrusting of the penis or other touching  Orgasmic phase • Uterus and outer part of vagina contract strongly, at intervals roughly a second apart • Women typically experience 3 to 10 contractions during orgasm  Resolution phase • Sexual organs return to their earlier unstimulated state o Gender Comparisons in Sexual Responses  Similar phases  Similar psychological reactions  Men reach orgasm more quickly than women  Women do not consider “faster” to be “better” - Sexual Desire o Hormones  Estrogen, testosterone o Social Factors o Cultural Factors o Gender Differences  Compared to women, men: • Think about sex more frequently • Masturbate more often • Want sexual activities more frequently • Initiate sexual activities more frequently • Are more interested in sexual activities without a romantic commitment • Prefer a greater number of sexual partners o Explaining Gender Differences  Physiology  Concern about pregnancy  Male-normative standards  Different motives for sexual activity - Attitudes About Female and Male Sexuality o Nonmarital Intercourse o Men typically have more permissive attitudes than women do o Sexual Double Standard (gender as stimulus variable)  Direct ratings vs. more subtle measures • Direct ratings harder to see evidence of double standard • Subtle measure—people have more positive view of sexually active male than female o Cultural Differences  Honor killings in some cultures (inappropriate sexual acts by a woman) - Sexual Scripts o Men as Initiators o Women resist or comply o Varying the script  Egalitarian relationships o Violating the Script  Men resist when women violate traditional script  Sexual assault & rape - Sex Education o Parents an Sex education  Mothers give “the talk”  Certain topics never discussed • 1% of parents mentioned word clitoris  Mixed messages  Ethnic differences o Schools and Sex Education  “organ recital” • Only focus on reproductive system  “Abstinence Only Until Marriage” (AOUM) Programs • These programs do not decrease teenagers’ sexual activity • These programs do not decrease the rate of STD’s  Comprehensive model • Accurate information • Values, attitudes, and emotions • Strategies for informed choices • Contraceptives • Teenagers who participate in these comprehensive programs typically postpone sexual relationships until they are older and have a lower pregnancy rate, compared to those in the abstinence-only programs  Most parents agree with the comprehensive approach o The Media and Sexual Information  Magazines • Narrowly defined sexual scripts • Many images, not very accurate • Mixed messages  Television • Network vs. cable programming • Adolescents who watch many hours of TV shows with sexual content are less likely to believe that sexual intercourse can have negative consequences such as pregnancy or STDs o Sexual Behaviour in Heterosexual Adolescents  Age at Puberty • More likely to have early heterosexual experience if reach puberty before most peers  Other indicators of early experience are: • low self-esteem • poor academic performance • poor parent-child relationships • low family income • extended exposure to sexually explicit media • early use of drugs and alcohol • Ethnicity o Black females likely to have first sexual experience 1 to 2 years before European American women • Peer Pressure o Hooking up • Personal Values • Negative First Experiences o Many women have negative first experience; physical or emotional distress • Coercion o 10% of high school females say they were forced into intercourse o Sexual Behaviour in Heterosexual Adults  Problems with Surveys •  Meta-Analyses • Men report greater number of sexual partners • Masturbation more common for men  Communication About Sexuality • Uncomfortable talking about sex • Ambivalent Messages • Nonverbal Communication • Consent o 65% of women prefer a partner ask for consent, 53% for men • Ambiguous Sexual Scenarios o Men more likely to perceive scenario as acceptable and consentual • Women’s sexual assertiveness • Sexual self-disclosure o Lesbians and Sexuality  Defining Sexual Activity  Nongenital Physical Contact  Genital Sexual Activity & Communication • Lesbians have more orgasms when engaging in sexual activity  Mapping Unknown Territory o Older Women and Sexuality  Estrogen • Levels drop, vagina loses elasticity, and less moisture  Frequency of Genital Sexual Activity  Importance of Closeness and Intimacy  Sexual Inactivity  Cultural Expectations & Biases • Asexual o Sexual Disorders  Low Sexual Desire  Female Orgasmic Disorder • Cannot reach orgasm  How Gender Roles Contribute to Sexual Disorders • Many people believe that a man should be sexual and aggressive, whereas a women doesn’t need to enjoy sexual activity • Our culture emphasizes the length, strength, and endurance of a man’s penis. When a man focuses on these issues, he probably won’t think about how to make the interactions pleasurable for his partner • Physical attractiveness is emphasized more for females than for males, so a woman may focus on her physical appearance, rather than on her own sexual pleasure • Self-objectification  Therapy for Sexual Disorders • Cognitive restructuring o Change people’s inappropriately negative thoughts about some aspect of sexuality o Reduce thoughts that interfere with sexual activity and pleasure • Feminist approach o Move beyond focus on biological aspects o Incorporate gender equality, tenderness, emotional closeness, and communication Adolescent Birth Rates & Abortion Rates Outcomes & Decisions - Birth Control Methods o Abstinence o Tubal Ligation (sterilization)  Surgical risk, not reversible, possible negative emotional reaction o Vasectomy  Surgical risk, not reversible, negative emotional reaction o Oral contraceptive  Risk of blood clotting disorders, other medical side effects  o Condom  Must be applied before intercourse, may decrease pleasure for male, can break o Diaphragm & Spermicidal Cream  Must be applied before intercourse, may irritate genital area o Withdrawal & Rhythm Methods  NOT reliably effective - Emergency Contraception: A new option o Hormone pills that prevent pregnancy o Must be taken as soon as possible after intercourse o Available without a prescription - Who Uses birth control o Factors related to women’s birth control use  Social Class • Middle and upper class more likely to use BC  Ethnicity • Higher among European American and Asian  Level of Education • Higher education higher rate  Feminist Beliefs • More likely than nonfeminists to use  Personality Characteristics • Higher self-esteem o Obstacles of Using birth control  Parents and educators often avoid discussing birth control with young people because they “don’t want to give them ideas”  Some young women cannot obtain contraceptive services, so they use less reliable forms of birth control  Many young women have sexual intercourse without much planning  People may not think rationally about the consequences of sexual activity  Traditionally women believe that if they were to obtain contraception, they would be admitting to themselves that they planned to have intercourse and are therefore not ‘nice girls”.  People often believe that birth control devices will interrupt the lovemaking mood, because they are not considered erotic or romantic  Many young women are pressured to have sexual intercourse, often with a much older man o Contraception and Family Planning in Developing Countries  Fertility Rates • 2 in US, 1.5 in Canada  Female Literacy • Higher literacy lower fertility rate  Family Planning • Well educated more likely to plan  Contraception • 50-60% of couples practice contraception  Lack of Access to Family Planning  Unwanted Pregnancies • 950 every 5 minutes o Abortion and Other Alternatives  Before 1973 • Many performed illegally  Roe v. Wade • People have legal right to choose abortion  Abortion Rates • 25% of pregnancies in Canada and US are aborted • 50 million anually  Safety o Women’s Psychological Reactions to Abortion  Relief  Negative feelings  Individual differences  No long-term effects  Factors related to Psychological Adjustment • Early abortion • Self-efficacy (self-competence) • Support o Children Born to women who were denied abortions  Fewer friends  Respond poorly to stress  Marital difficulties  Drug problems  Work conflicts  Trouble with the legal system  Mothers report negative emotions and lack of concern o Alternatives to Abortion  Adoption  Motherhood Chapter 12 Women and Psychological Disorders Terminology - Psychological disorders o Emotions, thoughts, behaviours that are typically maladaptive, distressing to themselves, and different from the social norm - Antisocial personality disorders o Behaviours that clearly violate the rights of other people; these behaviours include excessive aggressiveness, impulsiveness, and lying - Incidence of psychological disorder roughly similar among men and women Major Depressive Disorder Gender Differences in adults are substantial across ethnic groups and cross-culturally - Characteristics of Depression o Emotional symptons  Feeling sad, gloomy, tearful, apathetic, irritable, and unable to experience pleasure o Cognitive symptoms  Depressed thoughts interfere with normal functioning  Trouble concentrating and making decisions  Remember negative information more accurately than positive information o Physical symptoms  Illnesses such as headaches, dizzy spells, fatigue, indigestion, and generalized pain  Some people gain weight, other people lose weight o Behavioral Symptoms  Decreased ability to do ordinary tasks  Decreased productivity at work  Neglected personal appearance  Decreased social interactions and
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 3480

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit