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Exam 1 Notes (Chapters 1-5)

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PSYC 3480
Noreen Stuckless

Introduction 20140422 137 PMSex and GenderSexinborn biological characteristics relating to reproduction such as sex chromosomes or sex organsGenderpsychological characteristics and social categories that human culture createsAccording to the concept of doing gender you express your gender when you interact with other people o You also perceive gender in these other peopleFeminist ApproachesFeminismthe principle that values womens experience and ideas o Also emphasizes that women and men should be socially economically and legally equalLiberal feminismemphasizes the goal of gender equality giving women and men the same rights and opportunities o Emphasize that biological factors have relatively little effect on gender differencesCultural feminismemphasizes the positive qualities that are presumed to be stronger in women than in men o Focuses on gender differences that value women rather than on the gender similarities of liberal feminismRadical feminismargues that the basic cause of womens oppression lies deep in the entire sex and gender system rather than in some superficial laws and policies o Emphasize that sexism permeates our society Womenofcolour feminismpoints out that the other three types of feminism overemphasize gender o Emphasize that feminism must pay attention to other human dimensions such as ethnicity and social class The Similarities PerspectivePsychologists who emphasize the similarities perspective believe that men and women are generally similar in their intellectual and social skillso Social forces may create some temporary differencesSupporters of the similarities perspective also tend to favour liberal feminism o By deemphasizing gender roles and strengthening equal rights laws they say gender similarities will increase still further According to social constructionism individuals and cultures construct or invent their own versions of reality based on prior experience social interactions and beliefsThe Differences PerspectiveArgues that men and women are generally different in their intellectual and social abilitiesThose who favour the difference perspective also tend to be cultural feministsCritics of this perspective point out a potential problem o If we emphasize gender differences we will simply strengthen people stereotypes about genderEssentialism argues that gender is a basic unchangeable characteristic that resides within an individual Early Studies of Gender ComparisonsThe early research on gender typically focused on gender comparisons and it was often influenced by sexist biasesHelen Thomson Woolley demonstrated that men and women had similar intellectual abilities in 1910Leta Stetter Hollingsworth 1914 also studied gender bias o She demonstrated that womens menstrual cycles had little effect on their intellectual abilitiesThe Emergence of the Psychology of Women as a DisciplineThe association for Women in Psychology was founded in 1969In 1973 a group of American psychologists established an organization that is now called the Society for the Psychology of WomenThe Canadian Psychological Association Task Force on the Status of Women in Canadian PsychologyThe WhitePrivilege ConceptAccording to Peggy McIntosh our culture in the US and Canada is based on a hidden assumption that white individuals have a special statusAccording the white privilege concept white people have certain privileges based on their skin colourA concept related to white privilege can be called whiteasnormative concept which points out that being white is the normal standard in our cultureThe concept of Intersectionality emphasizes that each person belongs to multiple social groups based on categories such as ethnicity gender sexual orientation and social classUSCentered NationalismAccording to the principle of UScentered nationalism the US is dominant over all other countries I the world with are believed to have lower statusFormulating the HypothesisResearchers are often strongly committed to a certain psychological theory
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