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Study Guide

[PSYC 3490] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (39 pages long!)

39 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3490
Professor
Jean Varghese

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York
PSYC 3490
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Themes and Issues in Adult Development and Aging Chapter 1
The Biopsychosocial Perspective
Biopsychosocial perspective a view of development as a complex interaction of
biological, psychological, and social processes
o Biological processes refer to how the body’s functions and structures change
throughout the aging process
o Psychological processes include individual’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
related to growing older
o Social processes reflect the cultural, historical, and interpersonal influences on the
individual
Gerontology the scientific study of the aging process
Identity a composite of how people view themselves in the biological, psychological,
and social domains of life
Four Principles of Adult Development and Aging
Changes Are Continuous over the Life Span
Continuity principle the changes that people experience in later adulthood build on
the experiences they had in their earlier years
Since time moves in a forward direction, the changes throughout life build upon
themselves in a cumulative fashion
Only the Survivors Grow Old
Survivor principle states that the people who live to old age are the ones who
managed to outlive the many threats that could have caused their deaths at earlier ages
Individuality Matters
Individuality asserts that as people age, they become more different from each other
Inter-individual differences differences between people
o Some older adults can outperform younger adults on tasks typically shown to
decline with age
Intra-individual differences refers to the variations in performance within the same
individual
o Not all systems develop at the same rate within the person (some functions may
increase over time, others decrease, and others stay the same)
Multidirectionality development can proceed in multiple directions within the same
person
“Normal” Aging is Different from Disease
Normal aging growing older doesn’t necessarily mean growing sicker
Primary aging refers to normal changes over time that occur due to universal,
intrinsic, and progressive alterations in the body’s systems
Secondary or impaired aging changes over time leading to impairment due to
disease rather than normal aging
o Not due to universal, intrinsic processes but are a function of an abnormal set of
changes afflicting a segment rather than the entirety of the older population
Tertiary aging toward the very end of life, individuals experience a rapid loss of
functions across multiple areas of functioning
Optimal aging refers to age-related changes that improve the individual’s functioning
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Themes and Issues in Adult Development and Aging Chapter 1
The Meaning of Age
Divisions by Age of the Over-65 Population
Young-old (ages 65 to 74)
Old-old (ages 75 to 84)
Oldest-old (ages 85 and older)
Centenarians people over the age of 100
Psychological age refers to the performance an individual achieves on measures of
such qualities (reaction time, memory, learning ability, and intelligence)
Social age calculated by evaluating where people are compared to the “typical” ages
expected for people when they occupy certain positions in life
Personal versus Social Aging
Personal aging refers to changes that occur within the individual and reflect the
influence of time’s passage on the body’s structures and functions
Social aging refers to the effects of a person’s exposure to a changing environment
Paul Baltes (1979) identified three basic categories of social influences:
o Normative age-graded influences lead people to choose experiences that
their culture and historical period attach to certain ages or points in the life-span
Cultural norms (graduation, marriage, retiring, parenthood, etc.)
o Normative history-graded influences events that occur for everyone within a
certain culture or geopolitical unit (regardless of age) and include larger-scale
occurrences such as world wards, economic trends, or sociocultural changes in
attitudes and values
Anytime there is a significant enough even or set of events affecting a
large number of people, the event’s aftermath may continue to have an
impact on aspects of each person’s life for years to come
o Non-normative influences random idiosyncratic events that occur throughout
the life (no regular predictability)
Ex: good luck (winning the lottery, car accident, death, illnesses, etc.)
Key Social Factors in Adult Development and Aging
Sex and Gender
Gender refers to the individual’s identification as being male or female
Sex refers to the individual’s biological, inherited predisposition to develop the
physiological characteristics typically associated with maleness or femaleness
Physiological factors relevant to sex influence the timing and nature of physical aging
processes, primarily through the operation of sex hormones
Social and cultural factors relevant to gender are important to the extent that the
individual assumes a certain role in society based on being viewed as a male or female
o Women continue to be more restricted with the range of choices in career and of
lower earnings than men
Ethnicity
A person’s ethnicity can be defined in many ways, including ancestral origin, homeland,
and a shared history, identity, language, religion, or culture
Canada is characterized by “cultural dualism”
o Recognizes the historical colonization by French and English people
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Description
York PSYC 3490 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE find more resources at oneclass.com Themes and Issues in Adult Development and Aging Chapter 1 The Biopsychosocial Perspective Biopsychosocial perspective a view of development as a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social processes o Biological processes refer to how the bodys functions and structures change throughout the aging process o Psychological processes include individuals thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to growing older o Social processes reflect the cultural, historical, and interpersonal influences on the individual Gerontology the scientific study of the aging process Identity a composite of how people view themselves in the biological, psychological, and social domains of life Four Principles of Adult Development and Aging Changes Are Continuous over the Life Span Continuity principle the changes that people experience in later adulthood build on the experiences they had in their earlier years Since time moves in a forward direction, the changes throughout life build upon themselves in a cumulative fashion Only the Survivors Grow Old Survivor principle states that the people who live to old age are the ones who managed to outlive the many threats that could have caused their deaths at earlier ages Individuality Matters Individuality asserts that as people age, they become more different from each other Interindividual differences differences between people o Some older adults can outperform younger adults on tasks typically shown to decline with age Intraindividual differences refers to the variations in performance within the same individual o Not all systems develop at the same rate within the person (some functions may increase over time, others decrease, and others stay the same) Multidirectionality development can proceed in multiple directions within the same person Normal Aging is Different from Disease Normal aging growing older doesnt necessarily mean growing sicker Primary aging refers to normal changes over time that occur due to universal, intrinsic, and progressive alterations in the bodys systems Secondary or impaired aging changes over time leading to impairment due to disease rather than normal aging o Not due to universal, intrinsic processes but are a function of an abnormal set of changes afflicting a segment rather than the entirety of the older population Tertiary aging toward the very end of life, individuals experience a rapid loss of functions across multiple areas of functioning Optimal aging refers to agerelated changes that improve the individuals functioning find more resources at oneclass.com
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