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Psyc 3495 - Final Exam Notes.docx

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York University
PSYC 3490
Heather Jenkin

Lustig (2009) Aging, Training, and the Brain: A Review and Future Directions  Can we alter the trajectory of age-related cognitive decline?  Alter the trajectory through:  Strategy and process training (mental exercise) o Providing strategies o Training specific cognitive processes  Cardiovascular training (physical exercise) o Physical interventions (strength/endurance/aerobic)  Multimodal approaches (social engagement) o Complex interventions or lifestyle changes – usually with a social component o Classes, volunteering  How do we assess intervention success?  Training transfer/generalization o Near vs. far transfer  Far transfer is application to things that were not targeted  Is there evidence you’re not just training them on a specific task?  Near transfer is training results in improvements in the trained component. Tightly tied to training protocol o Strategy/Process training (mental exercise) usually has good near transfer but poor far transfer  Only focus on process, get near transfer. Get them to practice and apply in real word, get better far transfer o Multimodal approaches have larger far transfer, but small effects  Training Efficiency/Sustainability o How much training per unit of benefit? How long does the impact last?  Impact on quality of life / Functional outcomes o Multimodal typically positive in this regard. More far transfer, larger functional outcomes  Behaviour based approach to treatment design and evaluation o Intervention, analyze outcome, was it positive or negative? Based on that alter intervention  Brain-based approach to treatment design and evaluation o Now can analyze the outcome of the behaviour and of the brain o If there’s a negative behaviour, can look at if anything was changed in the brain. If you did change something in the brain, but there’s no behavioural indicator, may be measuring wrong thing o Can change measures, intervention, and the model 1 Ball Effects of Cognitive Training Interventions With Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial  Primary research question: To evaluate whether cognitive training interventions improve mental abilities and daily functioning in older, independently-living adults  Largest randomized and controlled study of cognitive training in healthy older adults o Randomized and controlled, therefore experimentally well designed, high level of evidence and strong design  Adults aged 65+  Participants assigned to one of three training groups o Memory training (verbal-episodic memory) o Reasoning training (problem-solving) o Speed of processing training (find an item in complex array of noise, distractions present and not present)  Small group sessions conducted in ten 1-hour sessions over 5-6 weeks  Booster training at 11 months  Measured domain-specific indications of cognitive functioning (e.g. memory measures, reasoning measures, speed of processing measures) and daily life functioning  Looked for time x group, time x booster, and time x booster x group interactions  Can tell if practice effect of tests had impact if you can see it in all groups, if memory only improves in memory training group then it was because of training and not practice effect  Each training task produced a net effect on its corresponding cognitive ability  Improve proximal and daily functioning in expected regions of groups  Training improved functional outcome and reduced activities of daily life declines (this far transfer was a smaller effect than cognitive effect)  Booster training benefitted performance (more for cognitive than functional measures)  Cognitive interventions helped older adults perform better on multiple measures of the cognitive ability on which they were trained  Effect sizes showed offsetting of cognitive decline, slope steadies out  Evidence for slowing the impact of aging on cognition  Could have used control groups to see if there were practice effects  Generalization of training gains (far transfer) difficult to demonstrate and measure  Real world applicability and especially durability remain a challenge 2 Colcombe (2004) Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging  Background and rationale:  Animal models demonstrated that aerobic fitness can increase neuronal survival as well as promote neurogenesis and synaptogenesis (more neurons, more synapses)  Leads to better learning and task performance  In humans, cardiovascular fitness reduced age-related declines in brain structure (frontal/parietal brain regions)  Primary research question: Does level of cardiac fitness correspond with efficiency in functional brain networks during cognitive task performance?  Predict that brain activation within the frontal and parietal regions (responsible for flexible executive control) will positively correlate with physical fitness  Also, brain activation within the anterior cingulate cortex (involved in monitoring error and conflict) will negatively correlate with physical fitness o More fit, less response conflict and error  Two studies  Study 1: Cross-sectional (41 older adults, examine how cardiovascular fitness is associated with functional brain activity). Participants divide into low vs. high cardio fitness based on a 1 mile walk  Study 2: Randomized control trial. Half assigned to CVF program for 6 months, half assigned to stretching and toning group (non-aerobic, control)  To measure CVF, study 1 used a 1 mile walk, study 2 used treadmill  Used flanker task to measure reaction time o Flanker: which way is arrow pointing, incongruent arrows result in slower reaction time  Study 1 behaviour: Wanted to see if reaction times were slower for incongruent, and if high-fit participants show less interference than low-fit participants o In other words, did fit people have faster reaction times, process information better  Study 1 brain: Does brain activity during the flanker task differ for high versus low-fit participants? Where do differences appear  Study 2 behaviour: Did participants show less interference post-training? Did aerobic training participants demonstrate greater change than toning/stretch training?  Study 2 brain: Does Brain activity during the flanker task differ from pre- to post-training? What regions show change?  Study 1 results: high fit participants showed less interference from incongruent stimuli. Performed better, had faster reaction time  Brain activity was greater in executive control regions (frontal and parietal) and lower in error monitoring regions (anterior cingulate cortex). Supports hypotheses 3  Study 2 results: Aerobic trainees showed less interference from incongruent stimuli post training. Faster reaction times, performed better  For aerobic training participants, brain activity was greater in executive control regions (frontal, parietal) and lower in error monitoring regions (anterior cingulate cortex) post-training  Cardio-fitness training associated with increased brain activity in regions associated with executive control processing (demonstrated in both studies)  Both studies also showed reduced activity in areas known to be involved in error monitoring  High-fit individuals perform better on behavioural tasks, faster reaction time, better at resolving interference  One caveat is that perhaps the differences were attributable to increased blood flow or circulatory changes that impact brain measures, but this is unlikely because there were both increases and decreases  Is there an optimal level of fitness? What is the frequency/duration necessary to achieve these changes?  Could these effects be mediated through mood changes? Winocur (2007) Cognitive rehabilitation in the elderly: Overview and future directions  Multi-modal, combined cognitive rehabilitation approach o Memory training o Goal management training (help individuals achieve goals by improving their attentional abilities) o Psychosocial training (e.g. enhancing sense of personal control, self- efficacy, lifestyle activities, coping skills)  Program intended to improve cognitive functioning as broadly as possible. Emphasis on building strategies, real world transfer (far transfer)  Article summarizes results of three companion papers  Primary research question: Does multi-modal training improve cognitive functioning and real world outcomes in older adulthood?  Does strategy training (implementing specific strategies to use regularly) improve training generalizability?  Strategies can help with more far transfer  Randomly assigned healthy older adults to early versus late training groups, cross-over experimental design o Early group trained for first 12 weeks, then late group for next 12 weeks o This design helps control for practice effects on testing  All participants received 12 weeks of training (4 weeks per training program)  Larger battery of cognitive and real-world functioning measures were used to assess training success 4  Analyses: o 0 to 12 weeks: compared early (training) and late (no-training) groups o Does cognitions and psychosocial functioning improve in early versus late groups? Does the training improve performance over and above the practice effects from repeat testing? o 12-24 weeks: compared early (no-training) and late (training) groups o Does performance improve in late group and is it maintained in early group? o 6-month follow up  Improvement in the late training group in the 12-24 weeks would show that the improvement is not due to practice effects, because they already had that opportunity in the 0-12 weeks  Benefits observed in all functional domains (memory, goal management, psychosocial functioning)  Motivation in late training group was down during the 12 weeks not involved  Benefits maintained at 6 months  Study showed multi-modal training improves functioning in all domains  Improvements are durable and generalize to the real world  Emphasis on strategic approaches more than specific skills training may be important for maximizing the amount, duration, and generalizability of training benefits  Combined training + strategic approaches (rather than specific skills training) results in far transfer  Small sample sizes  Real world measures were self-report o Very hard to measure far transfer  Unclear what active ingredient is in training protocol, can’t tell whether one module was more effective than another Karbach & Kray (2009) How useful is executive control training? Age differences in near and far transfer of task-switching training  Executive control (i.e. ability to plan, guide and monitor complex goal directed actions) can be differentiated into distinct control processes e.g. inhibition, working memory, task switching  All these processes are curvilinear, but can they be improved with training? How far do these changes reach?  Executive control processes change across the lifespan (curvilinear pattern)  Unknown whether task switching can be 1. Enhanced by training in older adults and children and 2. Whether training would generalize to other executive control functions in these populations  Primary research question: to examine age differences in 1. Training outcomes, 2. Training transfer, and 3. How training strategies may interact with training outcomes 5  To investigate the range of training transfer from near to far  Three age groups (children, young adults, older adults)  Pre test, followed by training, followed by post test  Sessions 1-2: Pre-assessment of single task and task switching; executive control measures (inhibition and working memory); fluid intelligence  Sessions 3-6: Training sessions: 4 different groups (per age category) o Single task training o Task switching training o Task switching with self instruction (additional on to previous) o Task switching with variable methods/stimuli  Sessions 7-8: Post-assessment  Measures of task switching: Task A - Asked to answer what they’re seeing (fruit or vegetables) and Task B: the size of what they’re seeing  3 Task conditions o All task A trials o All task B trials o Mixed A/B trials  Should respond slower with mixed trial  There are switching costs within mixed block, costs are seen through reaction time  Stroop tasks used to measure reaction time + interference  Also measured working memory using verbal and spatial complex span  Reasoning tasks similar to LSAT to measure fluid intelligence  Groups were matched on pre test  Verbalization and variability did not seem to add much on top of task switching training  Task switching training is major intervention  Task switching training had much larger effect size for all scores (mixing costs, switching costs, interference control, verbal working memory, spatial working memory, fluid intelligence) o Effect on fluid intelligence, as well as other scores not targeted, shows far transfer  Single task switching had barely any effect  Good evidence for transfer of task switching training…  Near Transfer: o To other switching tasks o Effects were similar in older versus younger adults o Not impacted by verbal self-instruction o Minor impact facilitated by training variability o Take home message is you can train task switching to have effects in executive control for older and younger adults  Far Transfer: o To other executive control tasks (debatable far transfer, might be medium transfer) o In old and young adults 6 o Effect sizes smaller than near transfer  Far transfer is debatable if it was really far transfer. Executive control demands (e.g. interference control/working memory) were part of the training tasks  No evidence of training durability Boyke (2008) Training-Induced Brain Structures Changes in the Elderly  Past studies had shown changes in brain st
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