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Midterm

PSYC 3490 Midterm: Ch2 Solutions

by OneClass924072 , Fall 2015
6 Pages
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Fall 2015

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3490
Professor
Heather Jenkin
Study Guide
Midterm

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Chapter 2
Short Answers
1. What are the three major approaches to understanding development? How do
they differ in their emphasis on the role of the individual in development?
1. Lifespan perspective – development is continuous from childhood to old age.
2. Contextual influences – Lifespan change is a function of nature and nurture
3. Developmental science – Need to look at multiple factors in development, not
just psychology
2. What is niche-picking? Provide an example from your own experience that
illustrates how this principle operates in development.
Is a concept that says genetic and environmental factors work together to
influence the direction of life.
Ex. child has genetic to be a talented dancer. Good flexibility and sense of
rhythm. Sees a ballet performance, wants to join ballet. Her dance genes lead
her to develop an interest in an activity that allows her talents to flourish.
3. Define and contrast the terms: theory, hypothesis, model, and perspective.
Theory - An organized set of concepts/ideas that explain a phenomenon ex.
erikson’s psychosocial theory
Hypothesis - A tentative and testable explanation of the relationship between 2 or
more variables
Model – like mini theory. Not as comprehensive ex. interactionist model
Perspective – a view that involves certain assumptions about a human behavior
4. What is the major assumption of the life course perspective?
Age norms in adulthood are linked to the Social Clock – expectations for the
ages at which a society associates major life events.
The expectations set pace for how ppl think they should progress through their
family and work timelines.
5. What are the major levels of organization in the ecological perspective?
Microsystem – centre. Where ppl have their daily interactions. Most direct impact.
Mesosystem – where interactions take place among 2 or more microsystems. Ex.
difficulties at home influence relationship with coworkers.
Exosystem – environment that ppl don’t closely exp on a regular basis ex.
workplace and community centres, extended family.
Macrosystem – larger social institutions ex. nation’s economy, laws, social
norms.influences indirectly thru exosystem.
Chronosystem – changes in system that take place over time.
6. Define the term "epigenetic" and explain how it relates to Erikson's
psychosocial theory.
Epigenetic principle – each stage unfolds from the previous stage according to a
predestined order. He believed that each psychosocial stage is built into the
hardwiring of human beings.
Erikson’s theory says that there are 8 stages that people go thru from birth to
death and that everyone goes thru the eight crisis stages in the same order.
7. What are the four major psychosocial crises of adulthood according to
Erikson? Define and provide an example of each.
Identity Achievement vs. Identity Diffusion – ppl must decide who they are and
what they wish to get out of life. Ex of diffusion: someone lacking direction,
unclear sense of self.
Intimacy vs. Isolation – individuals are faced with making commitments to close
relationships. Ex intimacy: 2 identities intersection but not a total overlap b/c each
partner preserves sense of seperateness
Generativity vs. Stagnation – adults focus on psychosocial issues of procreation,
productivity, creativity. Ex generativity: parenthood, teaching, mentoring
Ego Integrity vs. Despair – psychosocial issues of facing mortality. Ex strong ego
integrity = look back at experience with strong sense of acceptance.
8. What is an implication of the "matrix" as described within Erikson's theory
regarding the relationship between age and specific psychosocial issues?
A crisis may be experienced before its “time”. Crisis stages are critical periods
where certain issues are most likely prominent but are not meant to be discrete
step that proceed from youth to old age.
Ex 35 year old woman with breast cancer faced with issues of mortality, causing
her to think about psychosocial issues that normally confront older people.
9. Define and provide an example of these terms:
a. Assimilation. b. Accommodation. c. Equilibration.
Assimilation – Process where ppl use their existing schemas as a way to
understand world around them. PPl change interpretation of reality to fit the
schemas they hold. Ex calling all small birds Sparrows and big ones Crows. You
are forcing two categories when there may be more. You do this until you gain
more exp to refine your schemas.

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Description
Chapter 2 Short Answers 1. What are the three major approaches to understanding development? How do they differ in their emphasis on the role of the individual in development?  1. Lifespan perspective – development is continuous from childhood to old age.  2. Contextual influences – Lifespan change is a function of nature and nurture  3. Developmental science – Need to look at multiple factors in development, not just psychology 2. What is niche-picking? Provide an example from your own experience that illustrates how this principle operates in development.  Is a concept that says genetic and environmental factors work together to influence the direction of life.  Ex. child has genetic to be a talented dancer. Good flexibility and sense of rhythm. Sees a ballet performance, wants to join ballet. Her dance genes lead her to develop an interest in an activity that allows her talents to flourish. 3. Define and contrast the terms: theory, hypothesis, model, and perspective.  Theory - An organized set of concepts/ideas that explain a phenomenon ex. erikson’s psychosocial theory  Hypothesis - A tentative and testable explanation of the relationship between 2 or more variables  Model – like mini theory. Not as comprehensive ex. interactionist model  Perspective – a view that involves certain assumptions about a human behavior 4. What is the major assumption of the life course perspective?  Age norms in adulthood are linked to the Social Clock – expectations for the ages at which a society associates major life events.  The expectations set pace for how ppl think they should progress through their family and work timelines. 5. What are the major levels of organization in the ecological perspective?  Microsystem – centre. Where ppl have their daily interactions. Most direct impact.  Mesosystem – where interactions take place among 2 or more microsystems. Ex. difficulties at home influence relationship with coworkers.  Exosystem – environment that ppl don’t closely exp on a regular basis ex. workplace and community centres, extended family.  Macrosystem – larger social institutions ex. nation’s economy, laws, social norms.influences indirectly thru exosystem.  Chronosystem – changes in system that take place over time. 6. Define the term "epigenetic" and explain how it relates to Erikson's psychosocial theory.  Epigenetic principle – each stage unfolds from the previous stage according to a predestined order. He believed that each psychosocial stage is built into the hardwiring of human beings.  Erikson’s theory says that there are 8 stages that people go thru from birth to death and that everyone goes thru the eight crisis stages in the same order. 7. What are the four major psychosocial crises of adulthood according to Erikson? Define and provide an example of each.  Identity Achievement vs. Identity Diffusion – ppl must decide who they are and what they wish to get out of life. Ex of diffusion: someone lacking direction, unclear sense of self.  Intimacy vs. Isolation – individuals are faced with making commitments to close relationships. Ex intimacy: 2 identities intersection but not a total overlap b/c each partner preserves sense of seperateness  Generativity vs. Stagnation – adults focus on psychosocial issues of procreation, productivity, creativity. Ex generativity: parenthood, teaching, mentoring  Ego Integrity vs. Despair – psychosocial issues of facing mortality. Ex strong ego integrity = look back at experience with strong sense of acceptance. 8. What is an implication of the "matrix" as described within Erikson's theory regarding the relationship between age and specific psychosocial issues?  A crisis may be experienced before its “time”. Crisis stages are critical periods where certain issues are most likely prominent but are not meant to be discrete step that proceed from youth to old age.  Ex 35 year old woman with breast cancer faced with issues of mortality, causing her to think about psychosocial issues that normally confront older people. 9. Define and provide an example of these terms: a. Assimilation. b. Accommodation. c. Equilibration.  Assimilation – Process where ppl use their existing schemas as a way to understand world around them. PPl change interpretation of reality to fit the schemas they hold. Ex calling all small birds Sparrows and big ones Crows. You are forcing two categories when there may be more. You do this until you gain more exp to refine your schemas.  Accommodation – Change schema in response to new information about world. Change yourself to fit the larger culture that youre part of. Ex learning about more animals so you learn theres more than just cats and dogs with 4 legs  Equilibrium – Assimilation and accommodation are balanced. Most stable b/c person is using highest level of thought to understand and learn from exp. Ex. expanding category of toys with 4 wheels that drive as car or truck. 10. How does Piaget's theory differ from that of Erikson?  Piaget = cognitive development Processes underlying growth of children’s cognitive abilities. believed development involved continuing growth of knowledge about world thru opposing, complementary processes. These processes target: Schemas – mental structures we use to understand the world. Ex going to restaurant you expect to have a waiter, eat, pay bill  Erikson = personality Psychosocial crisis stages 11. Briefly describe the process of aging according to the telomere th
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