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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3550
Professor
Igor Kusyszyn
Semester
Fall

Description
Mid-term Study Notes for Creativity Creativity can mean: 1) to produce through imaginative skill 2) to produce something out of nothing 3) to improve something “Imaginative skill” suggests that we can use our imagination as a tool to solve problems. We can envision a new design or solution. Brief definition of creativity: Creativity is something: a) novel b) useful or significant Creativity can be local – small c creativity (e.g., you modify a recipe), or Universal big C creativity (e.g., Einstein’s Theory) A Comprehensive Definition of Creativity Creativity is a basic human instinct to make that which is new. It is personality, the process and the product within a domain in interaction with genetic influences and with optimal environments influences of home, school. Community and culture, gender and chance. Individuals vary greatly in the amount and kinds of creative talent/ it can be enhanced or suppressed. – adapted by JANE PIIRTO 3 Types of Creativity 1) Personal Creativity – your life as art – creating/recreating yourself 2) Artistic Creativity – art, music, performing 3) Creative Problem Solving – (CPS) inventing solutions Bisociation – common method of invention where two things are connected that have not been connect before. -inventions are rarely completely new, but rather they are variations, modifications or adaptations of things that already exist -ex. Roller blades are a combination of an ice skate and a roller skate Can there be creativity without creation? -many tests to measure creative thinking (I.e. Paul Torrance’s test) -doubtful that they measure creative thinking, likely that they measure creative potential, aka aptitude or ability -a test that measures and/or predicts creative productivity, or creative performance would be extremely valuable -could predict at a young age which students are likely to be creatively productive in their adult lives, and therefore, also those who will likely make creative contributions to society Historical and Current Views of Creativity Vitalism: Creativity has a theistic or mystical source Nativism: the belief that the origins are rooted in genetics Empiricism: the view that creativity is essentially learned Energentism: the view that it emerges as a synthesis of hereditary and environmental forces Cognition: the belief that is results from though processes Serendipity: notion that creative discoveries are accidental Romanticism: the belief that it originates through un-analyzable inspirations and that examining the illusionary roots of creativity will destroy it Physiology the contention that creativity is rooted in biology Culture: the determination of creativity by the historical zeitgeist Interpersonal relations: the notion that creativity results from group interaction Personality: the contention that the sources of creativity are understandable by examining the development an the structure of personality *be open-minded – all of the above views are to be respected, there is no single truth when it comes to creativity* We are Magical Beings – Douglas j. cardinal -contrasts humans with many different animals, we are the only species on this earth capable of creativity, “patterns of their existence are set”, this is not the case with us, we may set out goals, things that have never been done before, we can improve and find ways to do it more efficiently, faster, etc. -Ex. Wright Brothers – weren’t scientists, owned a bike shop, but had an absolute commitment to fly -reason does not drive us, its total commitment -creativity is making something from nothing, must not be afraid to venture into the abyss of the unknown -look at world as a blank canvas, our universe is here but the world is a land of total possibility, blank sheet of paper -animal analogies (eagle, elephant, cheetah, etc.) -the knowledge that is already out there is not enough to combat the problems of today -venture into the unknown -Einstein’s theory of relativity created a whole new way of viewing the world despite the fact that everyone around him lived Newton’s views -Both of these people took the personal responsibility of expressing this gift that we all have - creativity -fear is what holds us back, it’s what stops most of us from using our gift -fear of failure, fear of looking bad, being ostracized from the group, etc. -fear is unlimited, it keeps us small -lack of self-confidence - We don’t take responsibility for our lives, let alone this gift -we give responsibility away to those institutions we have created, to people that want to take the power to make vast institutions that control our lives -this is all based on our fear of taking responsibility -not only do we foster fear within ourselves, but we support the institutions around us that magnify the fears within us -church, gov’t, etc., are groups we give power to -where would they be, had we not given away our responsibility to them -they have a vested interest in keeping us small. -these institutions ultimately serve to serve themselves, not the public -we’re mortal beings: we fear our death, our demise, so we lack trust in ourselves -consider coming to terms with one’s own death, once accepted, once acknowledged that it’s inevitable, we can focus on living to full potential rather than denying our own mortality just to function -death can remind you that you don’t have time to waste The Accompanier – from Becoming Human by Jean Vanier -4 step to freedom is an accompanier, friend, teacher, counselor – just someone who is experienced in living -necessary throughout life, particularly in moments of crisis though -they aren’t there to judge, or tell us what to do, but unveil what is beautiful and valuable in us, and to point towards meaning of inner pain -helps to be reconciled with past to move toward future -“accompaniment” and “companion” come from Latin word cum pane which means “with bread”. -it implies eating together, sharing together, nourishing each other, walking together. -do no clutch onto each other, but rather give life to one another and call each other to greater freedom *REVIEW CHART ON PAGES 16-17* *REVIEW “HOW TO BUILD A GLOBAL COMMUNITY” ON PAGE 18* A Light in the Attic – Shel Silverstein PAGE 19 PUT SOMETHING IN DRAW A CRAZY PICTURE… Incubation, Creative Inspiration and the Unconscious -conscious intellect too analytical, rational and conceptual, misses great deal of reality, especially within ourselves… Abraham Maslow, Further Reaches of Human Nature -very difficult to grasp that our so-called normal waking state I neither the highest nor the most efficient state of which we are capable, other states of mind vastly greater awareness which we can enter and then return to normal living enriched, enlivened and enhanced – C.M. Cade, The Awakened Mind WRITERS: Emerson – poet sometimes seems to have a chamber in his brain into which an angel flied with divine messages Goethe - I wrote the book WERTHER almost unconsciously, like a somnambulist, and was amazed when I realized what I had done Blake – One power alone makes a poet – Divine Vision Yeats – I have to suspend my will so my mind becomes a possible vehicle for spiritual beings George Eliot – There is another self. My own personality is but a mere instrument through this spirit’s working. Kipling – I have learned that when your inner helper is in charge, do not try to think consciously. Drift – wait – obey. MUSICIANS: Brahms – I have to be in a semi-trance condition to get results - a condition when the conscious mind is in temporary abeyance, I feel vibrations that thrill all of me...I realize that I and God are one Mozart – Whence and how my idea comes, I know not; nor can I force them. They place as if in a pleasingly lively dream. I pray to God and the composition begins. Tchaikovsky – The germ of a future composition comes suddenly and unexpectedly it takes root with extraordinary force and rapidity; frequently in a somnambulist state. Strauss – In writing Electra and Rosenkavalier, I was dictated to by Omnipotent entities; by more than an earthly Power. I know that I can appropriate it, and that this holds true for any line of human endeavor. Greig – We composers are projectors of the infinite into the finite. ARTISTS: Van Gogh – I have terrible lucidity at moments when nature is so beautiful I am not conscious of myself any more, and the pictures come to me as in a dream. Picasso – A work of art is the project of calculations that are frequently unknown to the artist – calculations that precede intelligence Mondrian – Universal consciousness (intuition, that is) is the original of all art Klee – My hand is entirely the tool of a distant will SCIENTISTS: Einstein, Bohr, Kekule, Loewl, and Mendeleev. One researcher found that 70% of Nobel Prize-winning scientists said their dreams were a significant source of creative inspiration for their work. Paul Torrance on Creativity -greatest researcher in creativity in history of humankind -taught at Uni of Georgia, died in 2003 with more than 1500 creativity publications to his credit -Torrance Test of Creativity are most widely used of all creativity tests Here is some of his thinking on the importance of creativity: -creativity is an infinite phenomenon, inexhaustible -in almost every field of human achievement, creativity is usually distinguishing characteristic of the imminent -high intelligence, special talent and technical skills are not enough to produce outstanding achievement -Creative talent must be identified – important to society -to be highly creative is not necessarily to be viewed as busy, industrious, etc., thinking is key, we must admit thinking to a status of legitimacy -creative ways of learning have built-in motivation and makes punishment/rewards unnecessary, sensitively guide students -successful educational programs cannot be built upon deficits of children, must be built upon strengths, creative positives -great teachers involved = excellence of their pupils regardless of what materials/structures are used, too few great teachers = a problem -another human ability = outside of the realm of rational thinking, empathy and super awareness of the needs of another – independent of IQ -Images of future are powerful magnetic force – falling in love with something – to dream, plan, be energized by our curiosity -we’ve reached a stage where young man must teach the old, old taught young, then peers taught others, now young must teach the old – no escaping it J.P. GUILFORD ON CREATIVE EDUCATION – American pioneer psychologist -to live is to have problems, to solve is to grow intellectually -probably safe to assume earth is populated with largest number of informed and intellectually able individuals it ever has been right now, yet problems to be solved overwhelm -feed and clothe an expanding population, keep population from expanding too rapidly, how to Educate it -education in enlightened countries teaches young about older generations accomplishments successfully -the teaching has been too authoritative, younger generation has not been given instruction on how to use info in creative ways -creative education aims at self-starting, resourceful, and confident person ready to face personal and interpersonal and other kinds of problems – tolerance, world of tolerant people would be one of peaceful and cooperative people -creativity is therefore the key to proper education in its fullest sense and to the solution of mankind’s most serious problems PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF CREATIVITY HAS 5 PARTS 1. PRESS – PRESSURE 1) EXTERNAL INFLUENCES OF TIME AND/OR PLACE 2) INTERNAL PRESSURES 2. PERSON – CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PERSON, E.G., ORIGINALITY, PERSEVERANCE, PASSION, CONFIDENCE. 3. PROCESS – THE PROCEDURES OR STEPS IN CREATING, E.G, 1) PREPARATION, 2)INCUBATION, 3) ILLUMINATION, 4) VERIFICATION 4. PRODUCT – THE FINISHED WORK, E.G., PIECE OF MUSIC, ART, INVENTION, A NEW METHOD, ETC. 5. PERSUASION - THE POWER OF INFLUENCE, E.G., SELLING THE IDEA OR PRODUCT TO MANY PEOPLE CORE COMPONENTS OF CREATIVITY Anderson (1965), attempted to define creativity with six core components in his book “The Nature of Creativity”. 1) Involved both product and process, 2) Is a characteristic of life itself 3) Is an expression of individuality and originality 4) Is an interaction with society 5) Exists most dynamically in the present, and 6) Emerges from the depths of the unconscious mind CREATIVITY AND LEARNING -it’s something that can be learned -specific personality type or high IQ not required -Positive thinking and persistence are more central to being a creative person than inherited abilities – demonstrated by research repeatedly -most of what is in the world is linked to creativity -we take for granted inventions that make our lives easier, they’re all result of someone’s creative work POWER OF IMAGERY: BREAKING THE 4 MINUTE MILE -Roger Bannister was first to run mile under 4 minutes in 1954, Vancouver -shortly after 17 other runners did it within next 2 years -what changed? They now BELIEVED they could do it, which wasn’t the case prior to Roger Bannister breaking the record BRAINSTORMING Purpose – thinking tool used to generate ideas to solve problems Origins - invented by Alex F. Osborn in 1940s in Buffalo, New York Reference - Osborn, A.F. (1953), APPLIED IMAGINATION: PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES OF CREATIVE THINKING BRAINSTORMING’S FOUR SIMPLE RULES 1) NO CRITICISM ALLOWED, all ideas accepted as potentially useful. Judging, evaluating, or criticizing is suspended. 2) WILD EXAGGERATED IDEAS ARE ENCOURAGE 3) QUANTITY IS DESIRABLE. More ideas the better the chances a novel, useful idea will be found 4) BUILD ON EACH OTHER’S IDEAS. Allow one idea to act as a trigger for a second idea, then a third, etc. Keep brainstorming idea until you cannot think of any more. After brainstorming: carefully examine ideas, best ideas put on a “short list: then systematically examined, one at a time, for their potential to solve the problem These rules are the foundation of brainstorming. There are other techniques (catalysts) that enhance the process. FREE ASSOCIATON -LIST OF 5 WORDS, WRITE FIRST ASSOCIATION THAT COMES TO MIND -DO IT 5 MORE TIMES -LATTER ASSOCIATIONS ARE LESS COMMON, MORE ORIGINAL THAN THE FORMER. PLUS/MINUS/INTERESTING (PMI) -this is a method of reducing biased one-sided perceptions of situations or problems. -Make a list, 3 columns, PLUS/MINUS/INTERESTING, note under each -helps us react to inherent, interesting aspects in an idea in a personal subjective way, not unlike and artist experiencing a scene subjectively PREPARATION FOR CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING 1)STOP WHATEVER YOU ARE DOING 2) FIND A COMFORTABLE PLACE TO SIT 3) RELAX 4) BREATHE DEEPLY A FEW TIMES 5) RELAX SOME MORE 6) VISUALIZE THE PROBLEM 7) FEEL THE PROBLEM INSIDE YOU 8) THINK OF POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS 9) IMAGINE THE SOLUTIONS: CAN YOU SEE THEM CLEARLY? 10) PICK THE BEST SOLUTION – PLAY WITH IT, EXPAND IT, EMBELLISH IT, COLOUR IT. 4 WORDS AT BOTTOM OF EVERY PAGE: STOP BREATHE RELAX – IMAGINE CREATIVITY IN ACTION –ROY JONES -Roy Jones helps business executives and professionals produce creative breakthroughs Work shop titled: “We don’t have tomorrow, we just have today” -major thrust was to help mold creativity into action now! 8 step complete process –ending in action –CPS CIRCLE CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING 1) “Fuzzy” situation a. Often when faced with new situation, problem/challenge/opportunity it seems fuzzy. We’re not sure how to define it. Consider what we want solution to do. Rethink problem 2) Facts a. May get rid of fuzziness by jotting down some of the facts about the situation. WHAT is going on? WHO is involved? WHEN? WHY? Etc. b. REASON CAN ANSWER QUESTIONS BUT IMAGINATION HAS TO ASK THEM 3) Problem definition a. Assembling some of FACTS about a situation helps to develop working definition of problem. Helpful to state this as: “in what ways might we…” (Rather than “how can we…”) The word ‘ways’ suggests to our minds that there may be several solutions. This feels good and gives a positive spin to our efforts b. Word ‘might’ rather than ‘can’ triggers us to be open-minded, non-judgmental c. YOUR MIND IS LIKE A PARACHUTE, IT’S DEADLY UNLESS IT’S OPEN d. Helps to redefine a problem, restate it in different ways, helps to plough the creative furrows of our brain and produce a bountiful crop of ideas. 4) Ideas a. Use open-minded mode to jot down all ideas we can think of regarding problem definition. Go for quantity here, not quality. Accept all ideas at this step. Some seem silly often lead to most creative solutions later. All ideas whether illegal, moral, or fattening are potentially useful b. BEST WAY TO HAVE A GOOD IDEA IS TO HAVE LOTS OF IDEAS – LINUS PAULING c. ALEX F OSBORN, in his book “Applied Imagination” talks about principle of suspended judgment. We can use our minds to create and to judge. Don’t do these two functions simultaneously. Don’t be afraid to say your silly idea out loud. Hearing it may trigger a useful idea in someone else’s mind. Never say that won’t work. This is judgment. Ideas will be judged in a later step. When we’re going for quantity of ideas, we hang judgment from the ceiling, suspend it temporarily. Very important to write down every idea because they evaporate quickly 5) Evaluation a. Bring judgment back down from the ceiling and use it to sift through our ideas list. Jot down some of the criteria to use as a sieve to screen the ideas e.g., cost? Time required? Effectiveness? Etc. which of our idea satisfy our criteria? 6) Solution a. Those ideas which satisfy our criteria form the basis for possible solution to our problem/challenge/ opportunity. b. ALMOST ALL NOVEL SOLUTIONS HAVE A CERTAIN ASPECT OF FOOLISHNESS WHEN THEY ARE FIRST PRODUCD – ALFRED NORTH WHITEHEAD 7) Acceptance plan: how can I sell my idea a. SELL THE SIZZLE, NOT THE STEAK! b. USE CREATIVITY TO GENERATE WAYS TO GET SOLUTION ACCEPTED. WHAT ARE SOME OF THE WAYS WE MIGHT SELL OUR SOLUTION, IDEA OR INVENTION? WHOM DO WE NEED TO BUY OUR SOLUTION? WHAT ASPECTS OF IT MIGHT MAKE IT DESIRABLE TO THEM? WO MIGHT HELP US GAIN ACCEPTANCE FOR OUR SOLUTION? JOT DOWN ALL POSSIBILITIES. EX. SOME IDEAS AND INVENTIONS ARE MORE POPULAR IN EASTERN THAN IN WESTERN COUNTRIES. DON’T LIMIT YOUTSELF TO LOCATION, AGE, GENDER, ETC. c. SOMETIMES WE HAVE TO MASSAGE A SOLUTION BEFORE IT WILL FLY 8) ACTION a. This step is major key in whole process b. Need to DO something with creative output the process has generated c. Carry solution through completion d. May need revising, alterations, etc. e. Taking action is the qua non. f. Alex Osborn a fair idea put to work is better than a good idea kept on the polishing wheel FARMING IS A LOT LIKE AGRICULTURE BUT FARMING IS DOING IT IF NOT ME, WHO? IF NOT NOW, WHEN? – BUCKY FULLER. Largest circle: what we think we know (we think we know a lot Medium Circle: what we know for certain (a lot less than what we think we know) Tiny Circle: what we do with what we know (tiny isn’t it?) Why aren’t we humans more productive when we almost always have the strength, skill, and ability to be more productive? “The difference between what we do and what we are capable of doing would suffice to solve most of the world’s problems” -Mahatma Gandhi Creative Problem Solving (CPS) Method “A problem well defined is half-solved” – john Dewey -how you word your problem is key, when one pauses to think of the things that may be related to one’s problem, one often discovers that the original problem was not exactly the problem Key Concepts to Creative Problem Solving include: -develop positive, optimistic attitude -> anything is possible! -suspend judgment -> do not allow any negative thoughts -brainstorm for ideas -> go wild with your thoughts Divergent and convergent thinking are the two phases for each step in the formal CPS method. Divergent Thinking Defer judgment Look for lots of ideas Accept all ideas Make yourself stretch Let ideas simmer Look for combinations or bisociations Key Concepts to Divergent Thinking: Don’t fall Prey to our natural tendency to judge right away. The trick to deferring judgment is to resist evaluating an idea immediately after is has been generated, something we’ve been conditioned to do. Think of as many ideas/answers/possibilities as possible. QUANTITY OVER QUALITY Come up with wild or silly ideas, it’s ok! Don’t be lazy, force yourself to think, if you get stuck after a few ideas, take a break then think some more. You will surprise yourself. It normally helps to use as many senses as possible when thinking divergently (e.g. come up with a smelly or colorful idea) Take another break, forget what you were thinking about. Your mind will still work unconsciously. You can sleep on a problem and dream up a solution. Recent survey showed that more original ideas reveal themselves in morning in bathroom than anywhere else. Make connections. This is called piggybacking. You can piggyback and come up with a new idea. Convergent Thinking Be deliberate Be explicit Avoid premature closure Examine difficult issues Use affirmative judgment Focus on your objectives Key Concepts to Convergent Thinking Important to focus on what MOST efficient or effective to solve a problem. It’s systematic and critical – common sense is convergent thinking Be explicit about the specific problem. Try not to get lost in other ideas Don’t throw out ideas that are not used they may be useful at a later step or may be applied to a different problem When evaluating ideas, try to anticipate any problems or trouble spots so that the idea won’t be sabotaged in a later step\ Think positively about the idea, ask “what’s good about this?” don’t get discouraged Keep eyes on your objective Divergent thinking can be thought of as the creative approach to solving problems whereas convergent thinking is the rational approach. Both kinds of thinking are needed for most problems. Step 1 – mess-finding Divergent: What’s important to me convergent: what demands are really most pressing? Step 2 – data finding Divergent: has anyone else addressed this? Convergent: what data are most important to consider? Step 3 – Problem Solving Divergent: what are some problems about which I would like more different, unusual, or varied ideas? Convergent: which ideas are most needed? Step 4 – Idea-finding Divergent: what options and alternatives are there? Convergent: which alternatives are most appealing? Step 5 – Solution Finding Divergent: What criteria might be considered? Convergent: What criteria are most important and necessary to use? Step 6 – Acceptance Finding Divergent: How might promising ideas be implemented? Convergent: What is most likely to help me implement my idea? -possible checklist for five types of criteria to see if you have generated enough of your own criteria. 1)cost 2)time 3)feasibility 4)acceptability 5)usefulness Other categories Applications of CPS Method CPS is useful skill that can be learned. -Walt Disney Company has entire department to design concepts and ideas called Imagineers -CPS method – do not skip ahead until one becomes an expert in method -usually requires a few hours of mental work -sometimes solutions can be found quickly without using complete method -should not be hurried, produces results -it’s rewarding perhaps because it ensures a person solves a problem by themselves -even if working with consultant, still find solution best for yourself -purpose of 6 steps is to clarify all issues and problems -all ideas or possible solutions should be written down and kept aside until proper step is reached -look at issues that are important to you but not necessarily urgent Imaging, Visioning, Mental Rehearsal -Japanese pianist imprisoned for many years -became better piano player over that time by practicing by playing in his mind -Allan Richardson’s experiments on mental rehearsal of basketball proved no difference between groups That played every day and group that practiced in their minds every day -CLARITY OF IMAGE is on of most important parts of mental imagery -image that you focus on must depict exactly what you desire to achieve -your goal needs clarity if you are to achieve it -there can be no doubt or fogginess in the image of the goal Imagined events are imprinted on the brain as memory, they are not distinguished form real events by Our brain -whatever you imagine you can achieve -thoughts can come true -what we think about becomes our reality -vision of what is possible will affect performance Relaxation: An Important Aid to Creative Thinking Deep breathing is very important for relaxation -problems with deep breathing can lead to other problems, anxiety -people who are psychologically ill have breathing issues -deep breathing leads to relaxed muscles -cannot be anxious when muscles are relaxed -required to create? Get relaxed -importance of having life plan or vision cannot be underestimated -successful people have made short and long term plans for their futures -Buckminster Fuller: one of world’s greatest architects set out as a young man: “To discover what an unknown, penniless individual might be able to do effectively for all humanity That would be impossible to accomplish by great nations, great religions, or private enterprise no matter how rich or powerfully armed” -fuller devoted his life to solving global problems elegantly by using the design principles of nature Mental Characteristics of Inventors Rossman (1964) asked 710 successful inventors name the mental characteristics of inventors FIVE MOST FREQUENT MENTAL CHARACTERISTICS: 1. PERSEVERENCE 2. IMAGINATION 3. KNOWLEDGE AND MEMORY 4. BUSINESS SENSE 5. ORIGINALITY Perseverance is more than twice as important as imagination and more than three times as important as originality. S.C.A.M.P.E.R. invented in 1953 by Osborn and adapted in 1971 by Eberle *see page 52* S=SUBSTITUTE C=COMBINE A=ADAPT M=MODIFY M=MAGNIFY M=MINIFY P=PUT TO OTHER USES? E=ELIMINATE R=REVERSE R=REARRANGE You are a creative artist: jazz it up – fern kagan “inside you there’s an artist you don’t know about, say yes quickly if you know – Jalai Ud-Din Rumi -you are a creative artist -creativity is your birthright -art is essence of humanity All that jazz -father is jazz sax player -father always added improvisations to songs, his personal touch -sounded like mistakes, but there are no mistakes -creativity is most right when it seems all wrong Child’s play -hardest thing about art is letting it be easy -watch children, they’re natural expressers -using paints or crayons, they follow their fancy -Picasso spent his entire career learning how to paint like a child -to draw a line between child you were and adult you are is to be in harmony with your authentic self Dream dashers -dreams shot down -creativity is so sensitive, shatters like glass Take the creative challenge -you once knew who you were and what you wanted -what happened? You grew up, met fear -to protect life you curtail your creativity -once realizations are set free they can’ t be ignored “I don’t want to be a secretary anymore” Riding the streetcar named desire -time to unlearn all the self-limiting self-defeating beliefs you’ve
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