PSYC 4010 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Active Child, Connectionism, Language Development

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 4010
Professor
Page:
of 3
Theories
Person
Process
Outcome
Biological-based
theories of
development
(Darwin, Lorenz &
Tinbergen, Wilson,
Greary & Bjorklund,
Scarr,
Bronfrenbrennar, etc)
Child is biological
(biological being
mostly parts)
emphasis on brain or
genes
Source biological,
inherited/genes
Path of change not
clearly described;
universal
Timeline continuous
Principle of change
adaptation, natural
selection, heritability,
evolution, instincts,
epigenetics, evolution
Role of environment for
all approaches for all are
secondary, some are
primary
Dealing with external
behaviours; some physical
and some social behaviours
Orthogenetic
principle (Heinz
Werner)
Growing organism
Biological and “whole”
Cognitive being lower
on the list active
child
All aspects of the
human being are equal
Source drive to survive
(biological motivation);
desire to know (curiosity);
survival drive
Path of change form
syncreatic to the discrete;
moving from a state of
rigidity to greater
flexibility, qualitative,
stages: hierarchical
integration, greater
differentiation
Timeline continuous
Principle of Change
hierarchical integration
(syncresis to discrete);
primitive to stable
Role of environment
secondary (active child
and passive environment);
interacting parts
(principles of moving
forward)
Greater articulation
whereby various
behaviours are interlinked
in the services of other
outcomes such as eating the
biscuit
Stability
Differentiation
Flexibility
No ultimate thing “to
know”
Continue to strive (not one
specific thing)
Piaget Cognitive
Development
Cognitive being,
“knowing” creature
Source Curiosity and
environment
Path of change form
stages, universal,
qualitative
Timeline early high
school
Principle of Change
equilibrium; learning =
assimilation, developing:
accommodation;
disequilibrium
reorganize to equilibrium
Role of environment
secondary (active child;
passive environment)
Cognitive: logical and
abstract development;
higher level of thought
processing
Clark, Smith, Eliot,
etc Connectionism
Biological being
Source activation
Path of change form
units, directional (gradual
improvement),
quantitative
Timeline no timeline
Principle of Change trial
and error, repetition and
gradual adjustment of
change
Role of environment
secondary (active person
and passive environment)
Language development,
categorization and
decision-making; higher
degree of cognitive
development and
behaviour; mathematical
reasoning and the world of
logic
Jerome Brunner
Constructivist Theory
Active being, cognitive
Source the drive to
construct their world
Path of change form
universal, stages,
directional, qualitative,
continuous
Timeline young
adulthood
Principle of Change
enactive, iconic and
symbolic representation
Role of environment
secondary (active being
and passive environment)
Symbolic representation;
organizing knowledge of
the world
Behaviourism
(Pavlov, Watson,
Skinner)
Passive person; active
environment; biological
being and physiological;
observable; start off as a
blank slate (tabula rasa)
Machine;
reflexes/behaviours;
cognitive being
Source: response to
environment stimuli
Path of Change form:
stimulus response;
quantitative, universal,
mechanic, rigid
determinism
Timeline: continuous
Principle of Change:
Pavlov CS CR; CS
UCS CR (conditioned
reflexes)
Watson operant
behaviour objective
observation
Skinner consequences in
regards to rewards and
punishments
Linear causality
Role of environment:
primary (active
environment; passive
person)
Learned behaviour
(conditioned reflex)
Small units (motor
achievements)
Unique
Information-
processing approach
(Tolman)
Cognitive being and
behavioural
Active
Machine/robot (attend
to the environment
select information)
Environment (bits of
information data)
Source: external stimuli
(sensory environment)
Path of Change: form
stimulus response;
quantitative, continuous,
units; unique for each
computer, similar learning
Timeline: continuous
Principle of Change:
intervening variable;
Dodge - Select -->
interpret --> infer -->
match --> selectively
attend
Role of environment:
equally active
Increase in long-term
memory storage,
increasingly more complex
and sophisticated
“computer” mind for
solving problems;
development of gender
schemas
Process information like a
computer
Problem-solving
Example: cooking
equally
Social learning theory
- 2 versions: social
behaviour cognitive
aspect and
consciousness
(Bandura)
3 stages: observe
(imitator); self-
efficient/self-
regulation; conscious
individual (has
intentions)
Agents
Source: environmental
stimuli (observational of
modelling); need for
improvement (self-
efficacy)
Path of change: form -
universal, qualitative, that
they actively do personal
learning unique
Timeline: continuous
Principle of Change:
imitation, symbolic and
vicarious reinforcement of
modelling, perceived self-
efficacy, reciprocal
determinism, triadic
reciprocity, functional,
consciousness,
determinism
Role of environment:
secondary (active person
and passive environment)
Advanced learned
behaviour; exhibited
modelled behaviour;
advanced and higher self-
improvement
Social behaviour
Unique outcome

Document Summary

Child is biological (biological being mostly parts) emphasis on brain or genes. Path of change not clearly described; universal. Principle of change adaptation, natural selection, heritability, evolution, instincts, epigenetics, evolution. Cognitive being lower on the list active child. All aspects of the human being are equal. Role of environment for all approaches for all are secondary, some are primary. Source drive to survive (biological motivation); desire to know (curiosity); survival drive. Path of change form syncreatic to the discrete; moving from a state of rigidity to greater flexibility, qualitative, stages: hierarchical integration, greater differentiation. Principle of change hierarchical integration (syncresis to discrete); primitive to stable. Role of environment secondary (active child and passive environment); interacting parts (principles of moving forward) Path of change form stages, universal, qualitative. Principle of change equilibrium; learning = assimilation, developing: accommodation; disequilibrium reorganize to equilibrium. Role of environment secondary (active child; passive environment) Dealing with external behaviours; some physical and some social behaviours.