PSYC 4010 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Lev Vygotsky, Functional Psychology, Antithesis

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 4010
Professor
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of 4
Extra notes Test #2
1 Question Dialectical approach
Dialectic between 3 components
1. Thesis
2. Antithesis
3. Synthesis
Thesis antithesis synthesis thesis (repeat)
Greater consideration for culture and history
Whole is greater than the sum of the parts
More holistic and system
5 Questions Vygotsky
Cognitive and social
3 characteristics instrumental (modifies the stimuli), cultural (language and how it
changes the way they learn) and genetic (higher order functions develop from lower order
functions)
Qualitative distinct stages: stable conflict/crisis transformation (repeat)
Thought is separate speech
Concept formation/conceptual development
o Unorganized heaps grouped in terms of functional, concrete uses chain
complexes diffuse complexes pseudo-concepts abstract thought
o Social being
o No pattern at all; free association and look at one quality at a time (shape or
colour)
Immobilization
o Study with children who spoke the same language and children who did not speak
the same language (Piaget believed that it would stay the same due to egocentrism,
but Vygotsky believed that immobilization is decreased since the children are still
trying to communicate with each other)
Piaget vs. Vygotsky Little scientist vs. little apprentice
Causation
Mind = biology and environment
Relation that is primary and the entities in transaction cannot be understood in the
absence of relationship
Interaction stay the same elements before; transaction there was change (between
environment and person); mind is always in transaction (open system)
Explanations: impossible to identify cause(s)
Concepts: transform through stages, but not through levels
Moving from one psychophysical state to another, describable on different levels by
different specialists. Causation flows between these states and not between the levels of
description
Cant attribute causation to one element
Causation is flowed through states, not levels
2 Questions James, Riegel, Mead, Bronfrenbrenner
Riegel
Concerned with stability and maintenance of equilibrium; theory was development in
nature
He proposed that aspects of the individual (biological, psychological and
sociocultural/historical) are in transactional relationship each being defined in relation
to all the others
A change in one aspect produces a crisis, the resolution of which results in development
Riegel’s concern – development in relation to sociocultural change
William James
James argued for adaptive functioning
The mind is seen as constantly engaged in interaction with adaptation to the environment;
he emphasized the selective function of consciousness; he argued that “thoughts and
feelings exist”
James’s main point was that development of a functional psychology whereby the aim is
to study consciousness as an ongoing process or stream
Comparison of Riegel and James
Both are in relation to each other; interaction with each other
James the mind is interaction with adaptation to the environment
Riegel parts (biological, psychological, sociocultural, historical) are in transactional
relationship
Mead
Culture shapes children and family
Three different kinds of culture: post-figurative, co-figurative and prefigurative
1. Post-figurative Children learn primarily from the collective experience and
history of their forebears (ex. Asian families)
2. Co-figurative They learn through their peers
3. Prefigurative Adults are capable of learning from their children, as well as vice-
versa
Mead believed that we are living in a present for which our understanding of the past has
not prepared us (children and adults need to be in a prefigurative culture)
1 Question Positive psychology (Carl Jung)
Focuses on human prospering and centered on helping people become happier; effective
interventions to produce thriving individuals, families and communities
Focused on dysfunction, people with mental illness or other psychological problems
Focuses on improving the mental functioning of human beings above that of normal
mental health
1 Question Phenomenology
It is study of the structures of subjective experience and consciousness
study of structures of consciousness and phenomena that appear in acts of consciousness
Humanistic
Anti-behaviourism
Thinking and feeling is important
2 findings
1. The inner subjective experience and that there is inner phenomena
2. Impacts our lives

Document Summary

Dialectic between 3 components: thesis, antithesis, synthesis. Thesis antithesis synthesis thesis (repeat) Whole is greater than the sum of the parts. 3 characteristics instrumental (modifies the stimuli), cultural (language and how it changes the way they learn) and genetic (higher order functions develop from lower order functions) Qualitative distinct stages: stable conflict/crisis transformation (repeat) Piaget vs. vygotsky little scientist vs. little apprentice. Relation that is primary and the entities in transaction cannot be understood in the absence of relationship. Interaction stay the same elements before; transaction there was change (between environment and person); mind is always in transaction (open system) Concepts: transform through stages, but not through levels. Moving from one psychophysical state to another, describable on different levels by different specialists. Causation flows between these states and not between the levels of description . Causation is flowed through states, not levels. Concerned with stability and maintenance of equilibrium; theory was development in nature.