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Test #2 - Study Notes - extra notes.docx

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PSYC 4010
Tifrah Warner

Extra notes – Test #2 1 Question – Dialectical approach  Dialectic between 3 components 1. Thesis 2. Antithesis 3. Synthesis  Thesis  antithesis  synthesis  thesis (repeat)  Greater consideration for culture and history  Whole is greater than the sum of the parts  More holistic and system 5 Questions – Vygotsky  Cognitive and social  3 characteristics – instrumental (modifies the stimuli), cultural (language and how it changes the way they learn) and genetic (higher order functions develop from lower order functions)  Qualitative distinct stages: stable  conflict/crisis  transformation (repeat)  Thought is separate speech  Concept formation/conceptual development o Unorganized heaps  grouped in terms of functional, concrete uses  chain complexes  diffuse complexes  pseudo-concepts  abstract thought o Social being o No pattern at all; free association and look at one quality at a time (shape or colour)  Immobilization o Study with children who spoke the same language and children who did not speak the same language (Piaget believed that it would stay the same due to egocentrism, but Vygotsky believed that immobilization is decreased since the children are still trying to communicate with each other)  Piaget vs. Vygotsky – Little scientist vs. little apprentice Causation  Mind = biology and environment  Relation that is primary and the entities in transaction cannot be understood in the absence of relationship  Interaction – stay the same elements before; transaction – there was change (between environment and person); mind is always in transaction (open system)  Explanations: impossible to identify cause(s)  Concepts: transform through stages, but not through levels  “Moving from one psychophysical state to another, describable on different levels by different specialists. Causation flows between these states and not between the levels of description”  Can’t attribute causation to one element  Causation is flowed through states, not levels 2 Questions – James, Riegel, Mead, Bronfrenbrenner Riegel  Concerned with stability and maintenance of equilibrium; theory was development in nature  He proposed that aspects of the individual (biological, psychological and sociocultural/historical) are in transactional relationship – each being defined in relation to all the others  A change in one aspect produces a crisis, the resolution of which results in development  Riegel’s concern – development in relation to sociocultural change William James  James argued for adaptive functioning  The mind is seen as constantly engaged in interaction with adaptation to the environment; he emphasized the selective function of consciousness; he argued that “thoughts and feelings exist”  James’s main point was that development of a functional psychology whereby the aim is to study consciousness as an ongoing process or stream Comparison of Riegel and James  Both are in relation to each other; interaction with each other  James – the mind is interaction with adaptation to the envi
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