In-class Test preparation for PPAS 3190
Lecture # 1
The Challenges Confronting Public Sector
- what contributes to variation in the level of success in introducing new policies and programs
- how to make less successful entities perform on the same level with the less successful ones.
- How to earn respect of citizens?
Six Principle Recognized by all Governments in Canada:
1) the vital importance of accountability in everything they do
2) public respect and support upon displaying to the public that their actions actions are accountable in all
possible senses of the term
3) their actions must be as economical, efficient, and effective as possible
4) their actions must be responsible and prudent
5) the policy decisions must be well-designed, well-implemented, and consistent with all legal obligations
borne by the state
6) they must be ultimately responsive to the social and economic needs of the broader society and the
various groups with
What is Leadership? Difference between leadership and management
Leadership can refer to the ability to affect human behaviour so as to accomplish a mission designated by
Management can refer to skills in managing, handling, directing, controlling.
Leader influences, while manager controls
Manager exercises positional power, while leader exercises personal power.
There is a huge importance of leadership in management good governance
In addition to positional power, personal power by the managers has to be used; they need to demonstrate
their ability to influence people in order to be successful.
Structural and Value Frameworks for analyzing the interactions of actors in terms of their power
Structural Categories for interaction Focus (locus)
1) intre-departmental (inside of organization)
2) intra-departmental (between departments/organizations)
3) executive-bureaucratic (minister to deputy minister or other senior official)
4) legislative-bureaucratic (members of parliament to public servants)
5) judicial-bureaucratic (courts to departments, crown corporations, etc.)
6) intergovernmental (federal/provincial, federal/municipal, provincial/municipal)
7) governmental-nongovernmental (ministers and/or public servants to the interest groups, media,
citizens, etc, Value frameworks are the organized set of values that influence behaviour of an individual person.
There are three levels of culture: political, societal, and administrative all three affect the conduct of
Societal Culture general societal values that influence bureaucrats behaviour
Political Culture affects relationships between bureaucrats and political elites and bureaucrats and the
Administrative Culture the general orientation of society to management and impersonal authority in
formal organizations impacts on the behaviour of public officials.
What are the Requirements for Sound Leadership?
- Vision, Mission, Accountability, Sound Human Resource Management, Respect for people,
effective use of communications, inspiration, trust, sound financial management, the promotion of
economy, efficiency, and effectiveness in all actions;
- The assertion in flexibility in management;
- The promotion of teamwork; and,
- The ability to anticipate, respond to, and take advantage of change.
Allan Tuppers view of the New Public Management (1980s-present)
NPM a set of management ideas and organizational processes that evolved as a result of an
administrative revolution that Canada experienced in the 1980s and 1990s.
NPM is based on following assumptions:
1) information revolution, driven by computer technology, is restructuring the economy
2) weberian bureaucracy (hierarchical structure, unity of command, specialization of labour, positions
based on full time employment, work recorded and maintained in written files, etc) is not suitable for the
new economy. What is required is a flexible, adaptable administration.
3) public employees must become entrepreneurial agents of management reform.
Reasons for the emergence of NPM
the economic crisis of 1970s contributed to the rise of neo-conservative governments
1) balance of payments problems experienced by the US largely as a result of the Vietnam War
2) quadrupling of the oil prices
3) increased industrial competition from southern European and Third World countries
4) decreased rates of growth in western economies (half or less of what they were the decade before)
5) stagflation high rates of inflation coupled with high unemployment
6) increases in government spending exceeded increases in economic growth leading to government
deficits.Ideology of neo-conservatism :
individualism over collectivism
rejects the redistributive ethic of the welfare state and interventionist role of government
evokes populism and traditional morality in defending the social order of capitalism
it claims to be more democratic than its liberal or social democratic rivals
Allan Tupper noted a number of major concerns with NPM:
- heavy reliance on non-governmental agencies for the delivery of public services alternative
service delivery such a partnership state does not advance democratic accountability
- the NPM downplays the public services policy advisory roles senior officials are the
facilitators of the policy-making process policy advisory role is taken up by consultants, think-
tanks, pollsters, and pressure groups
Public Service Management Reform in federal government
- Glassco Commission, 1960
to study and report on the ways and means to improve the personnel management system in the
to seek out ways of eliminating overlap and duplication of services, achieving efficiency and
economy through decentralization and through reallocation or regrouping of units of public
service and through improving budgeting procedures
know for a famous phrase let the managers manage