Social Science 1000: Study Questions
Part A: 50% - 50 Minutes
Six of the following items will appear on the exam. You will be asked to define and explain the
significance for the course of five of them. (10% each)
1. Thomas Hobbes:
Studies human behaviours
Believed society began with a social contract
Before Hobbe’s time, human behavior was taken for granted
Survival of the fittest, he speculated how human act in the state of nature. He
thought they would all compete strongly against each other.
Only subjecting themselves to a common power could they live in reasonable
According to Hobbes, peace was achieved when human finally said, “I convey my
right to this party, upon conditions that you pass yours to the same” … In other
words; people said “Let’s make a contract. Each of us will limit our personal
freedom in order to have some social stability.”
Limiting own power
You are making other’s lives miserable
Rich is richer
Poor is poorer
The value of goods and services is determined by the amount of labour required
for their production. However, in a capitalist society the workers never receive this
true value because the property owners retain some of if (surplus value)
The workers were exploited, and their exploitation was made worse by the
practice of hiring workers at the lowest possible wages to work the longest possible
Because of competition, they had to pay their workers the wages determined by
the labour market; to compete successfully; they had to invest their capital in new
equipment in order to raise production.
How Mexico was a job zone and had a population of 90 million, many of them
have to work hard just to get by, they are marginalized but a better way to describe
them is immisrise (a de-humanized workforce providing labour for sweatshops and
Heilbroner (Page 41) Talking about England and how there was land that were the
commons that meant anyone can go and build the huts and grow vegetables, taken
over by the land owners, the people who relied on the commons had nowhere to go,
Heilbroner called it the immiseration process (don’t have stable employment and have
to work with low level workers)
Immirised workers, people who found the abandoned farm and took it over, the
women who worked in the factory who were making barbies, were not working under 2
safe working conditions and a fire broke out and many died (in a movie called
Westray is also an example.
3. Dominant Ideology:
Values and beliefs is commonly shared
Our society is dominate ideology is capitalism
Most political ideology at the time is the one that is accepted. Columbus’s story,
Holmbergs mistake, justifies exercise of power, acts as a guide to what’s the right
thing to do and why you did it, if everyone accepts it, the ideology will never
Social reality doesn’t appear to us directly. It is revealed to our understanding
through a screen of assumptions, beliefs, explainations, values and unexamined
Ideology directs our attention to some realities but not to others, interprets what
our senses transmit to our brain, evaluates information not on its own merits but
in terms of what is already accepted as the truth.
Some parts of it are deliberately transmitted from childhood. Some parts are
deliberately transmitted by parents, schools, the media, and the other institutions
of our society.
Some aspects of an ideology are about political/ public world events.
The definition of ideology is: shared ideas, perceptions, values and beliefs
through which members of a society interpret history and contemporary social
events and which shape their expectations and wishes for the future.
The Dominate Ideology in Columbus’s time was based on the ideologies of the
upper class and what historians see as a positive accomplishment in their society.
4. Aggregate Demand:
Goods wanted in a certain society to a given time.
5. Holmberg’s Mistake:
Recent realization that assumptions made about natives were wrong
Deaths, significance: Rinehart and alienation – related to safety policies and how
the worker is treated and how the government influenced decisions.
Mythistory is what we actually have – a useful instrument for piling human
groups in their encounters with one another and with the natural environment.
A mingling of truth and falsehood, blending of history with ideology results. 3
Challenging opinion, opposite opinion.
9. Creative Destruction:
Centered on how we view our modern capitalist societies, negative aspect of
capitalism, ties into moral economy.
Creative Destruction, specified by Heilbroner: Newer creations of technology and
products replace the older and lets the people continue to want and consume more
Capitalism would benefit from it (the state)
10. Classical Liberalism:
A political belief in which primary emphasis is placed on securing the freedom of
the individual by limiting the power of the state. In its economic form, it
advocates a respect for private property and free markets.
Society does not exist in and of itself, it is not an organic whole.
Collectivists; begin with the argument that the society is an organic whole.
Social democratic; accept the basic values of liberalism but place more emphasis
Socialists; perceive capitalism as a system where a ruling class extracts wealth.
11. Moral Economy:
From a traditional view there was no economy.
It’s important because it shows that social significance of growing socialism.
Bread riots in England, scarcity and high price of bread, changes between
economic and political forces, peasants used to fair price, peasants revolve and cling
to moral economy (if you are poor, you should be able to afford b