Please note that the highlighted text is the part where we have to refer the definition to
something else in the course, it is not found in lectures or course kits, I wrote it myself
and I am not sure how right it is. However, I think there is no right or wrong answer in
that part as long as you can explain it.
1. Luddism is one of the biggest resistance of workers who feared that new technology
will diminish employment. This movement began in 1811 and finished in 1817. Workers
who protested against Industrial Revolution were called Luddites. They feared
technology, opposed technical changes, and acted in self-defense by destroying
machines. This is not the only movement of workers. Similar resistance of workers was
held between 1780 and 1840 where workers protested against child labour and bad
working conditions (Childhood by Thompson, Volume 1) which was also seen in
2. Race as social construct means that people are socially divided into different
categories. According to Augie Fleras, all humans belong to a single biological species
called homo sapiens, therefore, race is a social and not biological construct. However,
some people argue that race is biologically constructed so, this topic is opened to the
debate. Race as social construct can be related to sexuality (Baird, Volume 2) because
there are also a lot of debate regarding if sexuality is something that people are born
with (medicalization of sexuality) or if it is something that people choose. So, according
to those who say that race is a social construct we can say that humans are biologically
the same but socially different.
3. Perspective Technology invokes a division of labour where doing something is
divided into different steps. Each step is done by worker or group of workers who are
isolated from other workers performing different steps. This division of labour can be
related to alienation (Rinehart, Volume 1) that were also studied in the course earlier.
Perspective technology involves four sources of alienation that includes capitalists,
alienation from other workers, self-alienation, and alienation from product.
5. Violent Masculinity is a concept of tough, strong, and powerful- real man introduced
by Jackson Katz in the movie Tough Guise. This image of real man is often presented
to young men through media where they see that being violent is normal. Because of
this wrong characteristics of real man, young people perform violently which in turn
increases the levels of violence, murder, and abuse. It can be compared to sex in
traditional society that was studied earlier in the course. Traditionally real man was the
one who was physically strong, clever, stubborn, and one who can provide for his family
(lecture on October 4, 2011). Violence however, was not a characteristic of real man.
We can see this transformation of real man even through toys for boys. Katz explains
how boys' toys such as soldiers or super heroes are made more masculine than in the
past which can also influence violent masculinity of boys in their early years.
6. The 1969 White Paper was a policy paper proposing to join together aboriginal
people and Canadian society to create equality within Canada. This document was
intended to eliminate the reserve system, to abolish Indian status, and to transfer education, social needs, and health care responsibilities to the provinces. This paper
however, was rejected by aboriginals who thought that the reserve system and Indian
Act protected their culture. Because its intent was to create an equality, this can be
related to discrimination, prejudice, and racism (Fleras, Volume 2) that Canada strive to
eliminate in order to create the same equality within Canadians. It could also be related
to multiculturalism (Fleras, Volume 2) in Canada. There are Canadians from so many
different cultural backgrounds that have the same rights, responsibilities, and statuses
as other Canadians but only aboriginal people have different rights, benefits, and even
hold different status called Indian (tutorial discussions on February 29, 2012).
7.The Bell Curve- the book written in 1994 by R. Herrnstein and C. Murray about
intelligence and levels of IQ in different races.
8. The Medicalization of Homosexuality- refers to homosexuality being treated as it was
a sickness. Biologists, doctors, and psychologists look for evidence that shows that
homosexuality is something that people are born with. Some of them try to find a cure
that could prevent homosexuality. There are many theories and arguments that attempt
to prove that homosexuality is a sickness as well as there are many controversies.
However, none of these theories, argument or studies really proved that homosexuality
is a sickness and that it can be cured. Constant hunt for an answer can lead to people
trying to change their babies or considering abortions as it was shown in the movie, The
Twilight of the Golds. This could be referred to discrimination (Fleras, Volume 2) also
studied in the course because saying that someone is sick because of their sexual
orientation is very offensive. So, we can therefore say that some scientists discriminate
homosexuals without even realizing it. It can also be linked to race as social construct
(Fleras, Volume 2) because there is the same kind of debate where some people think
that race is a social construct and some think that that race is biological.
9. The Caregiver role- most of the time mother is the main caregiver for a child and a
pulse of domesticity. Her role is not only to care after her children but also maintain all
the work around her house. As a housewife, she has to prepare food for her family,
clean her house, do the laundry, etc. As a mother, she has to nurture children, feed
them, cloth them, and socialize them. Her job as a wife includes providing sexual and
psychological needs for her husband. Finally, as being a daughter, she has to care for
her elder parents. Husbands' role is to provide for his family and do the physical work
around the house (fix something or throw out a garbage). Caregivers are traditionally
viewed as consumers not producers because they are financially dependent on their
spouses (lecture on January 24, 2012). The caregiver role can be linked to intensive
mothering. Intensive mothers are those who concentrate on their children giving them
all their love, time, and energy. Intensive mothering requires mothers to self-sacrifice
themselves for their children (Hays, Volume 2). The caregiver role can also be linked to
family in traditional society. The role of mothers of traditional families includes the same
responsibilities as caregiver's role (lecture on October 4, 2011).
10. Sustainable development- refers to meeting our needs today while making sure that
we don't damage the environment so that the same needs can be met by the future generations. To put it differently, we improve our standard of living by using the
resources but we do it in the way that it does not damage our environment. However, it
is often controlled using undemocratic means (Swift, Volume 2). It can be related to
technology. We start to produce eco friendly technology such as solar batteries, solar
powered cars, energy saving light bulbs, water powered clocks, etc. Such technologies
meet our needs and the needs of future generations.
11. Intensive mothering- is giving all the love, time, and energy of a mother to a child, it
is around the clock care. Intensive mothers are those who sacrifice themselves for their
children, they put their children above all the other responsibilities. As Sheron Hays
says intensive mothering is "child-centred, expert guided, labour-intensive, and
financially expensive."(pg 14, Volume 2) It can be linked to caregiver role because
intensive mother usually also has to perform as housewife (laundry, cooking), mother
(nurturing children), wife (meeting sexual and psychological needs of her husband), and
daughter (care about her elder parents) (lecture on January 24, 2012).
12. The Death of Birth- basically means the end of birth.
In his The Biotech Century, Rifkin outlines Darwin's theory of evolution, where he
explains Darwin's key points. The key points include:
First of all there is a limited resources in the world (pg 123).
Because there is a limit to the resources, organisms hav