Skin Deep – Science of Race
- Address perception that those of different colors might be inferior.
- Look into the science of genetics, discovering that there are no inherent differences across
- Instead, racial differences are perceived based on social constructions of the idea of race.
Claims of Race
- Categorize people to one race
- Rank races (Inferior vs. Dominant)
Documentary – Rasky - “The War against the Indian”
Key People: Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, Buffalo Bill & George Custer
- Columbus "invasion" –taking black hills of gold, yet representing attack as a defense against the
- Near extinction of the buffalo
- Little Big Horn – Victory over Custer
o Resisted efforts of the U.S. Army to force them on reservations, Indians under command of
Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse wiped out Colonel George Custer and much of his Cavalry at the
o Aware, yet ignorant of the fact that they were marching into a massive Indian village, the
American troops were slaughtered.
o This battle was the Indians' greatest victory and the army's worst defeat in the Plains Indian
- Massacre at Wounded Knee
o Last battle of the American Indian Wars
o The American troops went into the camp to disarm the Lakota.
o A deaf man named Black Coyote refused to give up his rifle, claiming he had paid a lot for it.
A shot was fired which led to the entire American cavalry troops opening fire
indiscriminately from all sides, killing all men, women, and children.
- Assimilation – Residential Schools
o Clothing taken away
o Hair cut
o Like a prison
o Crime to not pray
o Sexual abuse Summer Vacation 1999 (Optional)
- Visited Mt. Rushmore and its Indian equivalent, which is actually enormously larger.
- Visited Big Horn
o When the 7 cavalry under Custer had been massacred, the Indian reserve was reduced
o 1980 – Supreme Court of USA rule in favour of Sioux nation, awarding each member the
equivalent of $1500 (106 Million), even though billions had been mined of their land.
- Revolved around trade for fish and fur
- Indigenous peoples were good for military allies
- Royal Proclamation – in absence of treaty, sovereignty remains with indigenous peoples
- Assimilation and Marginalization
- 1867 – Canada is born
- Right of discovery of empty lands – could be decreed by a Pope or Bishop, even though land might
not be uninhabited.
Trudeau – White Paper – solve Indian problems by abolishing Indian Act
Met with Aboriginal opposition, as the only thing that hives their rights is the Indian Act, and they would
rather that than nothing.
1973 – Calder Decision
- Set new precedent for Indigenous peoples. Although the Nisga’a people were lost their land claim,
the court had agreed they had been owners. Therefore, it was a loss for the Nisga’a people, but a
enormous gain for the indigenous peoples of Canada.
Individual Rights and Collective Rights
Collective rights – protect a group of people