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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1000
Terry Conlin

Linkages (Innis and Staples) Lecture - A way of diversifieng the economy by not causing dependence on a resource. - There are 3 types of linkages backward linkages, forward linkages, and final demand linkages - The reason we don’t doversify the economy is because of imports and leakages - This can cause a trap economy - The transition form James Bay to Voisey Bay and caused a forward linkage in 1997 - After this forward linkage the environment became a major issue - Caused the Inuit to buy into modernirty - Caused a de-regulation of the environment and systemic racism to happen Reading Also relates to the theme of inequality. Innis describes how natural resources are so essential to the history of Canada while Lotte Hughes describes how the Inuit were more focused on collectivity. By Canadian being so dependant on the resources of the land they have alienated its wealth. Sustainable development Lecture - Meets the needs of the present without compromising the future to meet their own needs - Brunklen uses the method of sustainable development to talk about how there need to be a paradigm shift in how we think about the environment - Ties into the ideology of light-green reformism and deep respect for the laws of nature. - Historians use enviornmentalsim to view history as an ideology and it tackles scientific, moral, social, political, and ethical disciplines. Reading This relates to the theme of progress because of the way in which Paul Hawken describes how we are suffering the consequences of making the needs of the economy before the needs of the environment. He describes that how all of the values of collective ownership created by the Aborignals has made us suffer severe consequences. For example, he explains how owning private property has widened the gap between the rich and the poor. Video The video on James Bay the Wind that keeps on blowing also relates this topic to the theme of progress because the video describes how the government trieng to make the Hudson Bay Inland more dependant on hydro-electricity has disrupted the cycle of nature and negatively affected the cree people. For example, it caused salintity changes in the oceans these salinity changes made the fish contaminated by Mercury and when the fish were contaminated this creates less food supply for the Cree people. Intensive mothering Lecture - Ties into the theme of ideology arises from neo-liberalism and the backlash to femisnism - Conflict between O’Rielly and Hays shows the major criticisms in social science - Adrienne O’ Rielly suggest that motherhood is oppressive and should be abolished (counter-ideology) - Transformation between traditional and modern society because custodial mothering changes to radical mothering - Shows how the rise of capitalism has influenced western belief systems. The reason mothers buy a lot of thing for their children is because they become a marker of status. - Show how the rise of capitalism has influenced sexuality. Woman are guilted from working and the best mother also becomes the best consumer Reading This relates to the theme of progress and ideology because of the way in which intensive mothering raises such a major contradiction with the ideology of modern society. Sharon Hays describes that this is because the ideology of modern society expects the work to take away all the time and energy of the worker, it should be based on self-interest, and the worker is expected to be cool-hearted and competitive. The values of an intensive mother contradicts all of these values which is problematic to the theme of progress. It also relates to the theme of ideology because Sharon Hays describes how intensive mothering is a result of the ideology of motherhood. This ideology is a result of the ideology of patriarchy in which men are believed to control the reproductive success of woman Caregiver role Lecture - Role for woman that arose from woman being a part of the public sphere and men being a part of the public sphere - Shows how the world of work and the nature of capitalism has an impact on sexuality and gender - Separate spheres made men the producers and woman the consumers - This caused woman to become more depndant on men - Relates to the theme of the transition between traditional and modern society. In modern society woman are more likely to join the private sphere. This creates constroversy as some scholars argue if this has improved society. Although some scientist would say that 50% of child’s issue is due to working mothers professor Conlin would suggest that this is ideology - - dressed as science. Reading - One of the three elemnts of intensive motherhood which Sharon Hays identifies in her essay “why Can’t Woman be more like a businessman. - This relates to the theme of Ideology as Adrienne Rich describes how the ideology of motherhood - This relates to the theme of traditional and modern society as Campbell and Thompson describe the difference between the honorable male and the honorable female in Sarksatan society. He describes how the honorable male is manly, strong, and noble while the how the honorable female is self- disciplined, sacrificing, and a virgin - This explains why females are thought od the central cargivers as Adrienne Rich describes that woman are expected to hide their true emotions because the central ideology is that when a woman has the feeling of not being able to take care of her kids these feeling are unnatural. Race as a Social Construct Lecture Race as a social contruct is the way in which social scientists try explain how race has evolved throughout history. - This helps us determine the skills of analysis and disciplines because when viewing the video skin deep: where the spirit lives the documentary presents the arguments for how race is an ideology is a reality in our genes and counters these arguments by proving the way in which race is an ideology rooted in our culture. For example Reading -To say that race is a social construct means that it is a matter of physical charecteristics in oppose to Biology, and it allows people to normalize their power. -Race as a social construction relates to the theme of taking a look from the bottom up as the author tries to identify the ways in which the hierchy of race is a social construction - He describes how groups that inter-breeded with different races were seen as the dominant race because of a greater variation. For example, the Mongloids are seen as superiot to the Causcoids because they have more variation . The Bell Curve Video A book written by Richard J. Hernstein and Charles Marray in 1994 and political scientist Charles Murray. This book used a graphical represnation of a curve to identify several factors which influenced intelligence. This book created a great controversy in studies of social science because one of the arguments was that genes play a role in determining the IQ of individuals. Although, the evidence that these scholars presented did show evidence that certain races of individuals are more intelligent there is still other reasons that explain why they were more intelligent. Some scholars suggest that there is structural diffrences which determine why these children succeed. For example, westside prep a school of black children were shown to succeed more because structural diffrences were removed. For example, the teachers had higher expectation for the children unlike in normal schools where the expecttions for black children are low. This relates to the theme of ideology. The idea that genes influence intelligence is part of the dominant ideology that emerged from the colonialist attitudes of European settlers. The ways in which race is classified as a social construction is a counter-ideology for these colonialist attitudes. - Taking another look Reading This also relates to the theme of ideology as Stephen Gould discusses the bias in the Bell Curve experiment. He explains that this bias came from an ideology of Darwinsim. This ideology proposes that the reason for human diffrences is based on Biology. 1969- The White Paper Lecture A specific land claim made in Canada by Pierre Elliot Trudeau in 1969 that promised to solving the Indian act. This proposal lead to many claims and controversies. Although, there was a claim that the indian act was unjust for the Aboriginals so it needed to be changed it was also argued that the Indian act would produce an even more unjust society. By eliminating the Indian act there might not be any other way for aboriginal to negotiate their right with the government. Although, eliminating the Indian act would promote multiculturalism it is also debated wether multicultural is good or bad for society. Reading - Although it is believed that multiculturalism is god for society because it emphasizes values of equality it is also bad for society because it also causes inequality because the idea multiculturalism comes from a Eurocentric ideology - By analyzing the argument by Brookes and Miligan one can also see how multiculturalism is influenced by ideology. Although, they suggest that Aboriginals should not be separate from Canadian society they also suggest that aborignals are just another ethnic group. They are the founders of the country so it is unfair for them to have to assimilate to Canadian culture. Violent Masculinity Lecture Violent Masculinity is a concept introduced by Jackson Katz in the video “tough guise”. This concept proves that the reason that males are violent than females in society is because of the way in which society sets standards for what it mean to be a man. This relates to the theme of ideology as dominant ideologies lead to the social construction of violent masculinity while counter ideologies lead to the deconstruction of violent masculinity. For example, Jackson Katz explains how movies sets standards for manhoold by constantly putting them in violent scenes which they seem invulnerable to pain. He argues that a way of that movies like Good will hunting where there are images of a man crieng prevents these stadards by showing that men are vulnerable to pain. Reading This video relates to the Muscinzky reading because they both talk about the ways in which the individual is capable of deconstructing the ideas of sex raised in our society. One of these ways is by understanding that these ideologies are not natural and shaped by hegemonic powers. This also relates to the theme of taking a look from the bottom up because in order to identify these hegemonic powers we must take a look at how these hegemonic powers came into power. For example, men came into power by oppressing other woman. Luddism Lecture The ideology formed from the year of 1811 to 1816 by a group of laddites who argue that technology is destructive to society. These laddites acted on their ideology by destroying mechanical machines. This is significant because it creates controversies for the claim “guns don’t kill
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