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SOCIAL SCIENCE 1000 Exam Review #2.docx

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1000
Terry Conlin

SOCIAL SCIENCE 1000 – WINTER TERM STUDY QUESTIONS: Part A: 50 Minutes – 50% Six of the following terms will appear on the exam. You will be required to define, and explain the significance of the course, of five of them. (10% each). 1. The Fur Trade  Fur trade in Canada and how it led to the exploration of the country and the formation of the oldest and largest company in Canadian history: Hudson's Bay Company. In fact, the history of the fur trade, Hudson's Bay Company and the exploration of Canada are so intertwined that they cannot be separated. 2. Luddism  The beliefs of bands of early 19th-century English workmen that attempted to prevent the use of labour-saving machinery by destroying it.  Biggest resistance of workers who feared that new technology will diminish employment.  Movement began in 1811 and finished in 1817 – Workers who protested against Industrial Revolution were called Luddites – they feared technology, opposed technical changes, and acted in self-defence by destroying machines. 3. Race as a Social Construct  Means that people are socially divided into different categories. According to Augie Fleras, all humans belong to a single biological species called homosapiens.  Race is a social construct and not a biological construct – however some people argue that race is biologically constructed so, this topic is opened to the debate.  Race as social construct can be related to sexuality.  Because there are also debates regarding if sexuality is the trait that people are born with; or is it something people choose.  Race is a social construct, we can say that humans are biologically the same but socially different. 4. Violent Masculinity  Is the concept of touch, strong and powerful – real men introduced by Jackson Katz in the movie Tough Guise.  Image of real man is often presented to young men through media where they see that being violent is normal.  Because of these wrong characteristics of real man, young people perform violently which in turn increase the levels of violence, murder and abuse.  Traditionally real men were the ones who were physically strong, clever, stubborn and one who can provide for his family. SOSC 1000 Final Exam Review 1  Violence however, was not a characteristic of real men. We can see this transformation of real men even through toys for boys – Katz explains how boys’ toys such as soldiers and super heroes are made more masculine than in the past which can also influence violent masculinity of boys in their early years. 5. Medicalization of Homosexuality  Refers to homosexuality being treated as it was a sickness.  Biologists, doctors, and psychologists look for evidence that shows that homosexuality is something that people are born with - Some of them try to find a cure that could prevent homosexuality.  There are many theories and arguments that attempt to prove that homosexuality is a sickness as well are many controversies. 6. Caregiver Role  Most of the time, the mother is the main caregiver for a child and a pulse of domesticity. Her role is not only to care after her children but also maintain all the work around the house.  As a housewife, she is to prepare the food for her family, clean her house, and do the laundry etc.  As a mother, she has to nurture children, feed them, clothe them, and socialize them. Her job as a wife includes providing sexual and psychological needs for her husband.  Finally, being a daughter, she has to care for her elder parents. Husbands’ role is to provide for his family and do the physical work around the house (taking out the garbage).  Caregivers are usually seen as consumers not producers because they are financially dependent on their spouses. 7. Intensive Mothering  Is giving all the love, time and energy of a mother to a child, it is around the clock care.  Intensive mothers are those who sacrifice themselves for their children, they put their children above all responsibilities. 8. The Death of Birth  When an area of land is cleared it is quickly taken over by weeds. They compete for sunlight and represent an inefficient use of resources, changing the environment. This is called negentropy.  The immature ecosystems evolve and develop and become highly complex. They become mature and efficient and reach a state of equilibrium from which there is little change. Clearing the land for agricultural use involves changing this climax system into a system for production of crops.  Hawken describes the industrial economy as an immature ecosystem. The economy uses resources in a way that mimics the use of sunlight stored in plants SOSC 1000 Final Exam Review 2 and fossil fuels. It acts as a newly formed ecosystem and functions as a "linear industrial ecology of low information quality"  GNP increases without any index accounting for the effect on the environment. 9. Sustainable Development  Taking note of what happened in the environment.  1972, United Nations takes concern of the environment. World commission on environment and development: report “Our Common Future”.  Four major threats to the environment: 1. Loss of Habitat 2. Increase of toxification of air, water, and land. 3. Burning of fossil fumes and their impact on the atmosphere. 4. Overpopulation  Equity within’ and between generations.  Eco-market model versus the environment. Cost of environment damage is not internalized but collective. 10. The Bell Curve  is a 1994 book by psychologist Richard J. Herrnstein (who died before the book was released) and political scientist Charles Murray.  Its central argument is that human intelligence is substantially influenced by both inherited and environmental factors and is a better predictor of many personal dynamics, including financial income, job performance, chance of unwanted pregnancy, and involvement in crime than are an individual's parental socioeconomic status, or education level.  The book also argues that those with high intelligence, the "cognitive elite", are becoming separated from those of average and below-average intelligence, and that this is a dangerous social trend with the United States moving toward a more divided society similar to that in Latin America. 11. The 1979 White Paper  Was a policy paper proposing to join together Aboriginal people and Canadian society to create equality in Canada.  This document was intended to eliminate the reserve system, to abolish Indian status, and to transfer education, social needs, and health care responsibilities to the provinces.  This paper was rejected by the Aboriginals who thought that the reserve system and Indian Act protected their culture.  There are Canadians from so many different cultural backgrounds that have the same rights, responsibilities, and statuses as other Canadians but only Aboriginal people have different rights, benefits, and even hold different status called Indian. SOSC 1000 Final Exam Review 3 12. Functional Underclass  The greater part of the underclass consists of members of minority groups, blacks or people of Hispanic origin.  While the most common reference is to the underclass of the great cities, this is at least partly because its presence there is the most inescapably apparent.  What is not accepted, and indeed is little mentioned, is that the underclass is integrally a part of a larger economic process and, more importantly, that it serves the living standard and the comfort of the more favored community.  The underclass is deeply functional; all industrial countries have one in greater or lesser measure and in one form or another. 13. Prescriptive Technologies  Invokes a division of labour where doing sometime is divided into different steps.  Each step is done by worker of group of workers who are isolated from other workers performing different steps.  This can be related to the four sources of alienation: Capitalists, Alienation from other workers, self-alienation, and alienation from product. 14. Liberal Feminism  is an individualistic form of feminism theory, which primarily focuses on women’s ability to show and maintain their equality through their own actions and choices.  Liberal feminists argue that our society holds the false belief that women are, by nature, less intellectually and physically capable than men, it tends to discriminate against women in the academy, the forum, and the marketplace.  Liberal feminists believe that “female subordination is rooted in a set of customary and legal constraints that blocks women’s entrance to and success in the so-called public world” and they work hard to emphasize the equality of men and women through political and legal reform 15. Types of Racial Discrimination  All Social Constructions are Racial. 16. Linkages  Backwards, Forward, Final Demand  Backward Linkages: Take earnings from exporting and invest in domestics  Forward Linkages: Using output on export industry as an input, should take expected earnings to create forward linkages  Final Dem
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