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Social Science
SOSC 1000
Terry Conlin

1. Thomas Hobbes Thomas Hobbs (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679) First to establish that human behavior was appropriate subject of study, rather than to be taken for granted as was previously the common thought. Developed the idea that humans are in a continual state of war and competition is of human normality. Only under acceptance of common power will they live together in security. He believed in social contract where humans limited their own social freedom in exchange of some social stability by subjecting to some higher power. His explanation of what caused humans to create society angered people. The parliamentarians believed he was justifying a strong king. The supporters of kings thought he meant that people chose kings, not God. One of the first modern political theorists wrote the Leviathan in 1651 where he demonstrated the beginnings of classical liberal thought such as: 1. Personal Freedom 2. Limited Government 3. Equality of Right 4. Consent of the Government It is important to note that Hobbs deals with Negative Liberty, the freedom from coercion. The Government should be night watchmen, which protects its citizens. All citizens are equal and those with stake in the country (property owners) should be considered citizens. 2. Immiseration- is a „Marxist theory‟ which was brought up by Heilbroner that stated that to have a capitalist production it requires a decrease in real wages and worsening of work conditions. The world may well be working its way to immiseration. - Bell- talks about the revolution of technology and transformation of automobile, how it affected trade, lead to modernity, opened the doors to trade, brought on mass consumption, brought the world together, industrial revolution increased travel and relations. Technological revolution helped to produce cheaper and more FORDISM, Rinehart reading, assembly line, alienation of the worker (pg. 231 course kit) - How Mexico was a job zone and had a population of 90 million, many of them have to work hard to just get by, they are MARGINALIZED but a better way to describe them is immisrise (a de-humanized workforce providing labour for sweatshops and farms) - In Heilbroner(page 43) Talking about England and how there was land that were the commons that meant anyone can go and build huts and grow vegetables. When taken over by land owners, the people who relied on the commons had nowhere to go. Heilbroner called it the immiseration process - Immirisedworkers,peoplewhofoundtheabandonedfarmandtookitover, the womenwhoworkedinthefactorywhoweremakingbarbies,werenot working undersafeworkingconditionsandafirebrokeoutandmanydied(in moviecalled TURBULENCE) - Westrayaswell 3. Dominant Ideology: - “A dominant ideology is defined as that particular set of ideas, perceptions, values and beliefs which is most widely shared and has the greatest impact on social action at any particular time in a particular society.” (Marchak, p 63) - Ideologies are explanations for the social organizations. (Marchak, p 62) - Definition from class: An ideology is a fairly coherent and comprehensive set of ideas that explains and evaluates social conditions, helps people understand their place in society and helps provide a program for social and political action. (Conlin, May 14) - An ideology justifies the exercise of power in society. It explains and passes judgements on social events. It identifies political right and wrong. It maps out the interconnection between politics and the other spheres of human connection. Ideology attempts to make sense of the world and provides adherence with a certain set of eyeglasses. It provides us a way of seeing, understanding and attempts to provide us consistency and coherence in an ever changing world. (Conlin, May 14) - Ideology provides answers to 7 fundamental questions about political thought. 1- guide to behavior 2- nature of human nature 3- unit of analaysis 4- origin of society 5- view of change 6- role of government 7- highest political value Look at conservative, liberal and social democratic comparison. (Professor Conlin‟s chart in class) 4) Aggregate Demand – the total demand for goods and services within the economy at a given price level (Y = C + I + G + X – M). It is significant because of using government expenditure to lower the high unemployment and high inflation. It focuses to get the economy at a level of full employment. (May 28 lecture) 5) Holmberg’s Mistake  Introduction lecture May 9  Mann reading p.45  Pre-contact America was tiny, primitive, changeless  Conventional notions of North America before Columbus are changing as more scholars are discovering new information that does not match  Reading uses the example of the Beni in South America – can now see that it was a highly structured society  Holmberg had studied the Beni and believed they were a backwards people with no culture – they defined primitive humankind  Believed the people and land had no history before Columbus  Had been because of Europeans that populations declined and caused the illusion that there were very few people – looked like a primitive culture because it had just been shattered 6- Westray: A mining tragedy in Nova Scotia, occurring in 1992, and resulting in 26 deaths. PURPOSE- Relates to all of Rhinehart’s theories in the work and the alienation of labor.  Westray is the perfect example addressing all theories: alienations (yourself, others and products), hierarchy, human considerations are secondary to those of profitability, and self-esteem.  the death of 26 miners (11 of the 26 bodies were not found till this day) and it was shut down for good.  Westray was a mine known to be rich in coal, and also a mine with a rich history in accidents and death (194). T  he company in charge of the Westray development promised employees work for at least 15 years with no layoff and good pay.  -Westray was abuse of the corporate form. The large business was shielded from the public gaze because of political connections.  Westray can be described as a predictable path to disaster. Many of the persons, entities, and management of Westray failed in the primary responsibilities regarding safety and sanitation.  Many would question why the workers didn’t just leave, the answer to this is the promise of at least 15 years of work with better pay.  At this time there were very little jobs in the mining industry or in any industry.  Information is on The Westray Tragedy, Novel and the movie shown June 6, 2013 7- Mythistory (course kit pg. 75, group leader assignment #1.)- is a fictional story that is not defended by actual facts or proofs. History on the other hand is a true story that happened in the past and that is usually defended by actual facts. In other words, myth is false and history is true. However, what is true to one person does not mean that it is true to another or what is false to one person does not mean that it is false to another person. Sometimes people believe in history thinking that it really happened in the past while other people think of it as a myth. 8. Dissenters Lecture 2 They are the sophists 9- Creative Destruction: st Reading: 21 Century Capitalism- Robert Heilbroner “Marx‟s ruthless destruction of old capitals by competition is replaced by a „perennial gale of creative destruction‟ as entrepreneurs create and exploit previously nonexisting fields for expansion. Schumpeter therefore scoffs at the idea that the investment frontier can never be fully occupied.” (Heilbroner, 98-99) 10) Classical (Laissez-Faire) Liberalism: Is a political Ideology that emerged out of the industrial revolution in Europe and North America in the 19th Century, largely attributed to the work of Adam Smith and Thomas Hobbs. It advocates that a free market is the key to social development (Course kit p66), personal freedom, limited government, equality of rights and Consent of the governed. 7 points: 1-Behavior(Reason, Self-interest) 2-Human Nature( everyone equal by nature, acquisitive, competitive, achievement oriented) 3-Unit of analysis(Individualist less collectivist) 4-Origin of society( Atomistic -Individuals clash with each other) 5-View of change( change is natural) 6-role of government ( Promote equality of right and opportunity) 7- Highest political value( Liberty/Freedom). Significance to SOSC 1000: Relates to the Dominant Ideology, Adam Smith, the basis of Capitalism. (Marchak reading p:66 and lecture notes) 11. Moral Economy th Course Kit p. 131, 133(left) The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the 18 Century Significance: moral economy existed in 1800’s where many peasants existed. But now, we are in emerging market economy where countries are in process of rapid growth and industrialization. 12- Marilyn Warning (video “Who is counting?”) Define: Is a feminist, politician and activist of women‟s rights, she was the youngest female politician of New Zealand. Warning in recent years has devoted her time to making women‟s work paid and unpaid as international human rights. Significance: The GDP only includes paid work, so women‟s unpaid work was not included, which means they are included in social benefits, EI, pensions and etc. GDP is an indicator used to compare wealth of nations, but it doesn‟t measure the quality of life (i.e. education, air quality, healthcare etc.). There is a division of poverty. The women whose unpaid work is not documented, means
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