1. Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbs (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679)
First to establish that human behavior was appropriate subject of study,
rather than to be taken for granted as was previously the common
thought. Developed the idea that humans are in a continual state of war
and competition is of human normality. Only under acceptance of common
power will they live together in security. He believed in social contract
where humans limited their own social freedom in exchange of some
social stability by subjecting to some higher power. His explanation of
what caused humans to create society angered people. The
parliamentarians believed he was justifying a strong king. The supporters
of kings thought he meant that people chose kings, not God.
One of the first modern political theorists
wrote the Leviathan in 1651 where he demonstrated the beginnings of
classical liberal thought such as:
1. Personal Freedom
2. Limited Government
3. Equality of Right
4. Consent of the Government
It is important to note that Hobbs deals with Negative Liberty, the freedom
from coercion. The Government should be night watchmen, which protects
its citizens. All citizens are equal and those with stake in the country
(property owners) should be considered citizens.
2. Immiseration- is a „Marxist theory‟ which was brought up by Heilbroner that stated
that to have a capitalist production it requires a decrease in real wages and worsening of
work conditions. The world may well be working its way to immiseration.
- Bell- talks about the revolution of technology and transformation of automobile, how it
affected trade, lead to modernity, opened the doors to trade, brought on mass
consumption, brought the world together, industrial revolution increased travel and
relations. Technological revolution helped to produce cheaper and more FORDISM,
Rinehart reading, assembly line, alienation of the worker
(pg. 231 course kit)
- How Mexico was a job zone and had a population of 90 million, many of them
have to work hard to just get by, they are MARGINALIZED but a better way
to describe them is immisrise (a de-humanized workforce providing labour for
sweatshops and farms)
- In Heilbroner(page 43) Talking about England and how there was land that
were the commons that meant anyone can go and build huts and grow
vegetables. When taken over by land owners, the people who relied on the
commons had nowhere to go. Heilbroner called it the immiseration process - Immirisedworkers,peoplewhofoundtheabandonedfarmandtookitover, the
3. Dominant Ideology:
- “A dominant ideology is defined as that particular set of ideas, perceptions, values
and beliefs which is most widely shared and has the greatest impact on social
action at any particular time in a particular society.” (Marchak, p 63)
- Ideologies are explanations for the social organizations. (Marchak, p 62)
- Definition from class: An ideology is a fairly coherent and comprehensive set of
ideas that explains and evaluates social conditions, helps people understand their
place in society and helps provide a program for social and political action.
(Conlin, May 14)
- An ideology justifies the exercise of power in society. It explains and passes
judgements on social events. It identifies political right and wrong. It maps out the
interconnection between politics and the other spheres of human connection.
Ideology attempts to make sense of the world and provides adherence with a
certain set of eyeglasses. It provides us a way of seeing, understanding and
attempts to provide us consistency and coherence in an ever changing world.
(Conlin, May 14)
- Ideology provides answers to 7 fundamental questions about political thought.
1- guide to behavior
2- nature of human nature
3- unit of analaysis
4- origin of society
5- view of change
6- role of government
7- highest political value
Look at conservative, liberal and social democratic comparison.
(Professor Conlin‟s chart in class)
4) Aggregate Demand – the total demand for goods and services within the economy at
a given price level (Y = C + I + G + X – M). It is significant because of using
government expenditure to lower the high unemployment and high inflation. It focuses to
get the economy at a level of full employment. (May 28 lecture) 5) Holmberg’s Mistake
Introduction lecture May 9
Mann reading p.45
Pre-contact America was tiny, primitive, changeless
Conventional notions of North America before Columbus are changing as more
scholars are discovering new information that does not match
Reading uses the example of the Beni in South America – can now see that it was
a highly structured society
Holmberg had studied the Beni and believed they were a backwards people with
no culture – they defined primitive humankind
Believed the people and land had no history before Columbus
Had been because of Europeans that populations declined and caused the illusion
that there were very few people – looked like a primitive culture because it had
just been shattered
A mining tragedy in Nova Scotia, occurring in 1992, and resulting in 26 deaths.
PURPOSE- Relates to all of Rhinehart’s theories in the work and the alienation of
Westray is the perfect example addressing all theories: alienations (yourself,
others and products), hierarchy, human considerations are secondary to
those of profitability, and self-esteem.
the death of 26 miners (11 of the 26 bodies were not found till this day) and it
was shut down for good.
Westray was a mine known to be rich in coal, and also a mine with a rich history
in accidents and death (194). T
he company in charge of the Westray development promised employees work
for at least 15 years with no layoff and good pay.
-Westray was abuse of the corporate form. The large business was shielded from
the public gaze because of political connections.
Westray can be described as a predictable path to disaster. Many of the persons,
entities, and management of Westray failed in the primary responsibilities
regarding safety and sanitation.
Many would question why the workers didn’t just leave, the answer to this is the
promise of at least 15 years of work with better pay. At this time there were very little jobs in the mining industry or in any industry.
Information is on The Westray Tragedy, Novel and the movie shown June 6,
7- Mythistory (course kit pg. 75, group leader assignment #1.)- is a fictional story
that is not defended by actual facts or proofs. History on the other hand is a true
story that happened in the past and that is usually defended by actual facts. In
other words, myth is false and history is true. However, what is true to one person
does not mean that it is true to another or what is false to one person does not
mean that it is false to another person. Sometimes people believe in history
thinking that it really happened in the past while other people think of it as a myth.
They are the sophists
9- Creative Destruction:
Reading: 21 Century Capitalism- Robert Heilbroner
“Marx‟s ruthless destruction of old capitals by competition is replaced by a „perennial
gale of creative destruction‟ as entrepreneurs create and exploit previously nonexisting
fields for expansion. Schumpeter therefore scoffs at the idea that the investment frontier
can never be fully occupied.” (Heilbroner, 98-99)
10) Classical (Laissez-Faire) Liberalism: Is a political Ideology that emerged out of the
industrial revolution in Europe and North America in the 19th Century, largely attributed
to the work of Adam Smith and Thomas Hobbs. It advocates that a free market is the key
to social development (Course kit p66), personal freedom, limited government, equality
of rights and Consent of the governed.
2-Human Nature( everyone equal by nature, acquisitive, competitive, achievement
3-Unit of analysis(Individualist less collectivist)
4-Origin of society( Atomistic -Individuals clash with each other)
5-View of change( change is natural)
6-role of government ( Promote equality of right and opportunity)
7- Highest political value( Liberty/Freedom). Significance to SOSC 1000: Relates to the Dominant Ideology, Adam Smith, the basis
of Capitalism. (Marchak reading p:66 and lecture notes)
11. Moral Economy th
Course Kit p. 131, 133(left) The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the 18
Significance: moral economy existed in 1800’s where many peasants existed.
But now, we are in emerging market economy where countries are in process of
rapid growth and industrialization.
12- Marilyn Warning (video “Who is counting?”)
Define: Is a feminist, politician and activist of women‟s rights, she was the youngest
female politician of New Zealand. Warning in recent years has devoted her time to
making women‟s work paid and unpaid as international human rights.
Significance: The GDP only includes paid work, so women‟s unpaid work was not
included, which means they are included in social benefits, EI, pensions and etc. GDP is
an indicator used to compare wealth of nations, but it doesn‟t measure the quality of life
(i.e. education, air quality, healthcare etc.). There is a division of poverty. The women
whose unpaid work is not documented, means