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SOSC 1000 Midterm Study.docx

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Social Science
Course Code
SOSC 1000
Terry Conlin

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SOSC 1000 Midterm Study Define, significance, source [author & title of book/article], example 1) Thomas Hobbes [taken from Shusky’s “History of Social Science” – philosopher key to origin of social science. - established human behaviour was appropriate subject of study - assumes that humans would compete strongly against each other in a state of nature - humans must subject themselves to a common power could they live in reasonable security - “each of them obligeth himself by contract to everyone of the rest” - Hobbes believed society began with such a social contract 2] Immiseration [taken from Heilbroner’s 21 Century Capitalism] - originator: Karl Marx - production requires reduction of real wages and worse working conditions 3] Dominant Ideology [taken from Marchak’s “Ideology and Social Organization”] -also known as “conventional wisdom” – provides the “rule of thumb” for society - claim to explain society in historical and comparative perspective - originate from European Industrial Revolution -widespread of ideology creates an incapacity for judgment of its truth - Ex. Columbus story 4) Aggregate Demand [taken from Heilbroner’s 21st Century Capitalism] -established by Keynes - term used in economics - total demand for final goods and services available in the economy at a time and given price level - government has to increase expenditure to create more jobs and lower inflation 5) Holmberg’s Mistake [taken from Mann’s “A View From Above”] - assumptions made about Native American life is incorrect due to war circumstances - reference somewhat to Mythistory 6) Westray [taken from Glasbeek’s “The Westray Story] - 26 coal miners were killed by explosion on May 9, 1992 - failure to ensure health/safety regulations - mine owners commited 52 violations 7) Mythistory [taken from McNeill’s Mythistory, or Truth, Myth, History, and Historians] – myth and history are close kin in both explaining how something is through a story - rejecting someone else’s conclusion = myth - early history = catalogue of chronological facts - revisionism is still rampant/source criticism allowed new depth, scope, range and precision - limits of scientific history -> does not giving meaning or facts are trivial - to become history, facts have to be put in a pattern that is understandable and credible, where people can draw upon making decisions and taking actions ex. Natural science: Newton’s truths needed adjustments. Natural science is historical and evolutionary; theories are only accepted and embraced when there are more explanation of facts than its predecessor. 8) Dissenters - challenging opinion /opposite to majority 9) Creative Destruction [taken from Rinehart’s 21 Century Capitalism] - originator: Joseph Schumpeter - when a new economic force/technology emerges, it destroys previous ones already stationed - people will want keep consuming more and more (insatiable appetite) 10) Classical Liberalism [taken from Marchak’s Ideology and Social Organization] - heavily individual based [outweighs interests of the state - supports the idea of very minimal government intervention - left winged ideology 11] Moral Economy [taken from Thompson’s The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the 18 th Century] - historically based on the food riots in England - peasants/poor stating that a “fair price” is more important than market price -economy based on goodness/fairness/justness - possible in small communities based on mutuality 12) Marilyn Waring - female economist - wrote “If Women Counted” - stated how there is unpaid work in the economy [usually women] and gender inequality - nominated for Nobel Peace Prize - Ex. Reminiscent of Margaret Thatcher 13) Honour [taken from Campbell’s “Excerpts from Honour, Family and Patronage: A Study of Institutions and Moral Values in a Greek Moutain Community” - respect and esteem - honour is concerned with strength and sexual shame 14] New International Division of Labour [taken from Broad’s “Globalization, Industrial Restructuring and Labour”] - outcome of globalization - labour is no longer confined to national economies ex. Clothes made in China 16] Just in Time Workforce [taken from from Broad’s “Globalization, Industrial Restructuring and Labour”] - flexible in accumulation process [changing amount of production instantaneously] - emphasis on corporate accumulation and not on individuals - workers are victims of cost-cutting and demand for greater efficiency Ex. Part-time / self-employed employees Essay 1) Outline the content, origins and evolution of conservative, liberal and socialist ideology. [taken from Marchak’s Ideology and Social Organization] Contemporary liberalism[Canada]/Classical liberalism – under individualist and elitist - classical liberalism provides basis for contemporary libertarianism [absolutely free market being the key to social development - Liberalism has a somewhat different meaning in Canada than in US - Liberalism is dominant in Canada - Liberal view – equality is seen as positive, equality of opportunity is sufficient and is achieved within present social system - unconcerned with classes, emphasis on education [equal opportunity] - concerned with morals in terms of individual rights/freedoms - individuals strive towards personal goals - role of government is to regulate the market place and ensures rules are fair and equitable/not truly or directly involved in the “free” enterprise system Social Democratic – under egalitarian and collectivist - social democrats accept the basic values of liberalism, but place more emphasis on equality - recognizes classes/class barriers, governments acting in interest of a dominant/ruling class - share some understanding with socialists - committed to evol
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