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Social Science EXAM.docx

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1000
Terry Conlin

DEFINITIONS: 1. Race As A Social Construct: A social construct is a phenomena/perception that is created by the people/society through their practices. Race from this perspective is phenomena created by society to classify humans based on fixed characteristics/traits that these people have. Moreover, associate certain physical, social, psychological, and moral properties to these categories of people. Finally and as commonly practiced in many places people of these categories are ranked/ordered some given higher superiority than others. While people from lower ranked groups/races are predetermined to be inferior. According to Augie Fleras, all humans belong to a single biological species called Homo sapiens; therefore race is a social and not a biological construct. However some argue that it is biologically constructed rather than socially, so this topic is therefore opened to the debate. The significance of race being a social construction is how people have used race to explain social problems like racism. Because of the concept of race ideologies have been created to create superiority and inferior among groups of people. These concepts of race constructed were also created with no evidence or scientific proof that’s makes them valid. For as long as the concept of race is constructed and further discussed there will always be significant social problems like racism. Race as a social construct is significant because after years of ideas and stereotypes created from the concept it has influenced the minds of people who now share a common belief based on ideologies of a certain race. It has changed the views that people have of certain races. Due to the changes concepts of race has created, people of the superior race, live and get treated better then people of the inferior race. Because of this inequality and unjustness there are social problems amongst race, in which is why race as a social construct is so significant. Society generalize different race according to their appearance Created through colonialism by Europeans categorizing white people as more superior. Not supported by any scientific or biological facts. Race as a social construct can be related to sexuality (Baird, Volume 2) because there are also many debates about whether sexuality is something that people are born with or something that they choose. So according to those who say race is a social construct we can say that humans are biologically the same but socially different. –Relate to bell curve. –Django –Holocaust. Leads to: (1) Racialization: involves a process in which individuals or activities are identified, labelled/stereotyped, and infused with negative connotations. (2) Racialized Inequality: The process by which race-based disadvantages Racial significance is either structurally embedded within institutional structures of society (3) Segregation: process and practice of separating groups on the basis of race or culture (voluntary or involuntary (4) Social Darwinism: a doctrine of racial superiority that reworked some of Darwin’s ideas on evolution and applied them to group relations. (used as a justification for inequality) 2. Violent Masculinity: Violent Masculinity is a concept of tough, strong, and powerful- real man introduced by Jackson Katz in the movie Tough Guise. This image of real man is often presented to young men through media where they see that being violent is normal. It examines masculinity in a new way where it is a mask to protect vulnerability and hide humanity. Males are dominant group in society and masculinity which is the root problem of social problems of violence has gone unexamined. Violent masculinity is based on an extreme notion of masculinity. Male tend to emphasize toughness and physical strength to get respect from others through violence or implicit threat of violence. Because of this wrong characteristic of real man, young people perform violently which in turn increases the levels of violence, murder and abuse. Media has helped draw a picture of males that not only became embedded but managed to become normalized in society. Insults such as “fag”, “wuss”, “wimp”, “sissy” are used to keep boys boxed in and reinforce violent masculinity Over the years, through magazines, video games, comic books, and movies made males appear with bigger muscles and using bigger guns tying masculinity hand in hand with these features. Also violence and male dominant roles have been heavily stressed on. It can be compared to sex in traditional society which was studied earlier in the course. Traditionally real man was the physically strong, clever, stubborn, and the one who could provide for the family (lecture on October 3rd 2012). However violence was never a characteristic of real man. We can see this transformation through toys for boys. Katz explains how boys’ toys such as soldiers or super heroes are made more masculine than in the past which can influence violent masculinity more in their early years. A major problem is that violence is not a deviation of masculinity but a part of the accepted form of masculinity. It is a growing connection in society between being a man and being violent. -85% the people who commit murder are men -90% of the people who commit violent assault are men -95% of domestic violence is committed by men -Not only women will benefit from the prevention of violence but males as well. 3. Medicalization of Homosexuality: Medicalization of homosexuality is using science view to see homosexual species. As research shows, there are 450 species of bird and mammals have sexual behavior. In the science perspective, they uses biology view to look at homosexual people are people that have disease and need to have medical treatment and medicine to cure them. up to 19th century, most of literature on homosexuality was restricted to medical journals or books was not easy to access to public. Scientists both social and biological earlier argued that sexual orientation is changeable and believed that same sex relations were not possible among humans. Initially homosexuality being viewed as a disease or abnormality was featured in medical magazines. As studies were conducted on male homosexual’s brains, genes, and bodies they showed differences in hormone levels which seemed similar to other illness and thus suggested having a cure for it. In 1916 geneticist Richard Goldschmidt suggested that homosexuals might be people whose bodies don’t match their chromosomes. Homosexuality being studied more biologically than socially concluded to the idea of it being a disease. Biologists, doctors and psychologists look for evidence that shows that homosexuality is something a person is born with. Some try to look for a cure for it. However nothing really proved that it is a sickness and that it can be cured. Constant hunt for an answer can lead to people trying to change their babies or considering abortions as it was shown in the movie, The Twilight of Golds. This could be referred to discrimination (Fleras, Volume 2) also studied in the course because saying that s
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