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Race Ethnicity and Aboriginal Policy.docx

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1000
Terry Conlin

NEED ESSAY QUESTIONS AGAIN Race Ethnicity and Aboriginal Policy Nelson and Fleras p.167  Canada is internationally renowned: 1. ability to withstand pressures from neighbouring countries and pursue independence course of actions 2. ability to forge a prosperous and cohesive society despite challenges of diversity  defining problem of diversity: identifying public issues; framing an appropriate discourse; incorporating the discourse into the agenda; formulating a response  minorities regularly regarded as social problem...sociologists interested in social dimensions of race  minorities have been defined as the problem by those with a stake in power and prestige  in a globalizing world it is conformity and not diversity that is the problem  reaction to diversity can be problematic if: 1. undermines Canada's vision of itself in a progressive society 2. inflicts social, cultural or psychological harm  on targeted minorities 3. extracts costs that outweigh benefits 4. ends in conflict and possible dismemberment of society 5. violates both national and international agreements/laws to which Canada has been involved with  race, ethnic and aboriginal relations are seen as problematizing relationships of is important to understand how these inequities are created, expressed, maintained, challenged and transformed at the level of policy and practice (Fleras and Elliott) : race seen as a means to explain group differences, justify differential treatment, and condone a lack of concerted action  racism will exist as long as people continue to use the concept of race to explain the existence of social problems or as an excuse to deny others  construction of race types helped European colonization and justify actions of domination and control  race as a social construct: without any biological or scientific is the classification of population groups into categories on the basis of perceived physical, social, psychological characteristics  19th century Europe- first to "normalize" race as a basis for exploitation and control  variety of typologies (classificatory schemes) appeared in 19th century most common originated during last century: humanity was made up of 3 groups: caucasian, negroid and mongoloid...classified by skin colour, hair type, eyelid shape and other behavioural characteristics  implicit in this typology was a linkage between the physical characteristics and behavioural; ranking of types in ascending or descending orders of progress and moral worth  racial typologies has since been discredited as dangerous pseudo-science only in place to preserve power and prestige  people discriminate because it is in their best interest  capitalism helps perpetuate racial discrimination through struggle for wealth, power and status  racial discrimination is a social problem: originates within structures of society; expressed through social interaction; has consequences for society as a whole  prejudice: prejudgements held about other types formed by stereotypes and incomplete info; clouds our perceptions of others with half truths; becomes a problem when it leads to treatment/interferes with making accurate assessments of the general world  discrimination: prejudice in practice though prejudice and discrimination may exist separately; any action either by intent or consequence that adversely excludes or denies others from equitable treatment on the basis of membership in a devalued group  racism: system of beliefs and a corresponding set of discriminatory practices that target certain groups as inferior and deprive them of equitable treatment; hate and power=racism/prejudice and discrimination and power=racism; racism=social problem...structural problem in capitalism; inseparable from social control  5 types of racial discrimination: redneck, institutional, polite, subliminal, and systemic  anti-racism: process that isolates and challenges racism through direct action at personal and institutional levels; it has 2 levels: modifying individual behaviour through education or sanctions and removal of discriminatory structural barriers through institutional reform  4 strategies involved in anti-racism: law, education, interaction and language  structures of society difficult to reform through personal transformation  multiculturalism is major framework for analyzing race and ethnic relations...praised as tool for harmonious management of race in society  pros: tool for harmonious management of race and ethnic relations in a diverse changing society, empowers minorities to pursue goals of ethnicity and equality, alleviates some of the inequities confronting minorities, capable of defusing palpable threat of interethnic strife  cons: divisive: irritant to social unity and national identity...focuses too much on differences rather than similarities hard to gain a national identity as citizens of this country if everyone is loyal to their own traditions regressive: distracts minorities from abolishing class lines and gaining access to power and resources; diffuses minority aspirations and needs ornamental: multiculturalism appears as political diversion/symbolic not substantial...p.188 symbols hold power and can influences social change irrelevant: not necessary in a society organized around principles of capitalism-profit, consumerism, competitiveness, private property...; doubt whether cultural solutions can be applied to structural problems like systemic discrimination P.191 Brooks and Miljan  Indians aka Amerindian, natives, aboriginal peoples  status Indian: anyone who has been registered or is entitled to be registered under Indian Act (1876) including those who belong to communities covered by treaties 
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