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SOSC1000 - Exam Notes.docx

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1000
Terry Conlin

SOSC-1000: Introduction to Social Science (Exam Notes) For each term Define the term (must be embedded in the course) Find where it surfaces in the course (lecture, reading, film, etc.) Connect it to course themes (in some meaningful way) 1. Thomas Hobbes th Pg. 30 in the course kit (September 26 ) Became the first major modern thinker who proposes human equality. 1651 Explored the nature of human condition Established the fact human behaviour was an appropriate subject to study Speculated about how humans must act in a state of nature; thought they would compete strongly against each other. According to Hobbes, peace was achieved when humans finally said that each of us will limit our personal freedom in order to have some social stability Believed society began with such a social contract. (give up some freedoms for others). His theory implied that social behaviour is far more rational than it really is – it directs what causes humans to form societies. Relates to classical liberalism – capitalism “the worth of a person is the worth of their labour” “Watchman state – counter ideology to classical liberalism. 2. Immiseration Pg. 40 in Heilbroner Capitalism generates wealth and misery simultaneously as part of the workings of the accumulation process itself. Skim profits off wages Marx was writing during industrial revolution so the conditions were bad Economic impoverishment – when you don’t have enough economic means to survive (due to capitalism) Bourgeoisie accumulated their wealth, and did it at the expense of another person. Where all people moved to the city but are being paid really low wages and living in atrocious housing, both adults and children. Still exists today, kind of. Not paying workers what they are worth. 17 century Considerations of “economics” both quickened the pulse of production and became a cause for disruption and impoverishment. 3. Dominant ideology Pg. 63 in the course kit (September 18 )th Particular set of values, beliefs and ideas which is most widely shared and has the greatest impact on social action at any particular time in any particular society Hegemony: imperial government dominance – there to conform. 4. Aggregate Demand Pg. 62-65 or 98 in Heilbroner (October 16th) Total demand for final goods and services in the economy at a given time and price level Amount of goods and services in the economy that will be purchased at all possible price levels 5. Holmberg’s Mistake Pg. 45 in course kit (A view from above) Believed no one was living in North America Believed that these Indians existed in an unchanging state, never learning, evolving, or manipulating the environment Represents a major paradigm shift and how we look at history Look at history from the bottom up (course connection) 6. Westray Comish, and Glasbeek (November 6 ) th Westray is a company that work in the coal mines of Pictou, Nova Scotia Who what where when why how? People get caught up in the web of corporate evil Pursuit of profit, peoples lives become irrelevant The Westray Mine was a coalmine in Plymouth, Nova Scotia, Canada, which was the site of a methane explosion in 1992 that killed 26 miners. 7. Mythistory Pg. 87 (McNeil) in course kit (September 25 ) th History is based on knowledge and truth. Must place these facts into an understandable pattern 8 Dissenters Pg. 129 Thompson Reading (October 9 ) th A set of beliefs that don’t relate to social norms Modernity and tradition course theme. 9. Creative Destruction  Creative destruction From Heilbroner pg. 38 A term in economics Creative destruction describes a process in which the old ways of doing things are endogenously destroyed and replaced by new ways. E.g. Records  8-Trak  Cassette  CD  MP3, paintings  polaroid  digital cameras, etc. Term derived form a Marxist economic theory where it refers to the linked processes of the accumulation and annihilation of wealth under capitalism or the disruptive process of transformation that accompanies such innovation Used to describe the process such as downsizing in order to increase the efficiency and dynamism of a company Joseph Schumpeter’s insight was that the most formidable means of capital accumulation was the displacement of one process of product by another at the hands of giant enterprise. Central agency of change in all advanced capitalist economies The market never becomes saturated Creation and exploitation of previously non-existent fields Technological possibilities are endless Something being destroyed and something else is created 10. Classical Liberalism th Pg. 66 (course kit) (September 25 ) How the free market it is the key to social development Thomas Hobbes Connect ideology and how we view our lives Society was transforming, challenging the rules Idea that capitalism will balance things out (Wealth and poverty) Emphasis on Free Market About individualism It is about civil liberty, like the right to vote, the rights to individual people. Individual civil rights. Idea that the state should no inhibit individuals from pursuit of economic goals without being hindered by the state 11. Moral Economy Pg. 131 (course kit) Bread riots in England 12. Marilyn Waring  Marilyn Waring was discussed during lecture after watching a documentary entitled “Who’s Counting”. Waring was a feminist and economist A documentary (Who’s Counting) Feminist and economist Parliament from new Zealand Raising a child was valueless did not believe that Counter ideology Everyone accepts the GDP and she argues that women can work 13 hours a day, but nothing comes out of it (cleaning, taking care of children, cooking) Value of work Environmentalism Planet becomes a factor of production The market doesn’t care what happens down the line, it is immediate
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