SOSC-1000: Introduction to Social Science (Exam Notes)
For each term
Define the term (must be embedded in the course)
Find where it surfaces in the course (lecture, reading, film, etc.)
Connect it to course themes (in some meaningful way)
1. Thomas Hobbes
Pg. 30 in the course kit (September 26 )
Became the first major modern thinker who proposes human equality. 1651
Explored the nature of human condition
Established the fact human behaviour was an appropriate subject to study
Speculated about how humans must act in a state of nature; thought they would
compete strongly against each other.
According to Hobbes, peace was achieved when humans finally said that each of us will
limit our personal freedom in order to have some social stability
Believed society began with such a social contract. (give up some freedoms for others).
His theory implied that social behaviour is far more rational than it really is – it directs
what causes humans to form societies.
Relates to classical liberalism – capitalism “the worth of a person is the worth of their
labour” “Watchman state – counter ideology to classical liberalism.
Pg. 40 in Heilbroner
Capitalism generates wealth and misery simultaneously as part of the workings of the
accumulation process itself.
Skim profits off wages
Marx was writing during industrial revolution so the conditions were bad
Economic impoverishment – when you don’t have enough economic means to survive
(due to capitalism)
Bourgeoisie accumulated their wealth, and did it at the expense of another person.
Where all people moved to the city but are being paid really low wages and living in
atrocious housing, both adults and children.
Still exists today, kind of.
Not paying workers what they are worth.
17 century Considerations of “economics” both quickened the pulse of production and
became a cause for disruption and impoverishment.
3. Dominant ideology
Pg. 63 in the course kit (September 18 )th
Particular set of values, beliefs and ideas which is most widely shared and has the
greatest impact on social action at any particular time in any particular society
Hegemony: imperial government dominance – there to conform. 4. Aggregate Demand
Pg. 62-65 or 98 in Heilbroner (October 16th)
Total demand for final goods and services in the economy at a given time and price level
Amount of goods and services in the economy that will be purchased at all possible price
5. Holmberg’s Mistake
Pg. 45 in course kit (A view from above)
Believed no one was living in North America
Believed that these Indians existed in an unchanging state, never learning, evolving, or
manipulating the environment
Represents a major paradigm shift and how we look at history
Look at history from the bottom up (course connection)
Comish, and Glasbeek (November 6 ) th
Westray is a company that work in the coal mines of Pictou, Nova Scotia
Who what where when why how?
People get caught up in the web of corporate evil
Pursuit of profit, peoples lives become irrelevant
The Westray Mine was a coalmine in Plymouth, Nova Scotia, Canada, which was the site
of a methane explosion in 1992 that killed 26 miners.
Pg. 87 (McNeil) in course kit (September 25 ) th
History is based on knowledge and truth. Must place these facts into an understandable
Pg. 129 Thompson Reading (October 9 ) th
A set of beliefs that don’t relate to social norms
Modernity and tradition course theme. 9. Creative Destruction
From Heilbroner pg. 38
A term in economics
Creative destruction describes a process in which the old ways of doing things are
endogenously destroyed and replaced by new ways.
E.g. Records 8-Trak Cassette CD MP3, paintings polaroid digital
Term derived form a Marxist economic theory where it refers to the linked processes of
the accumulation and annihilation of wealth under capitalism or the disruptive process
of transformation that accompanies such innovation
Used to describe the process such as downsizing in order to increase the efficiency and
dynamism of a company
Joseph Schumpeter’s insight was that the most formidable means of capital
accumulation was the displacement of one process of product by another at the hands of
Central agency of change in all advanced capitalist economies
The market never becomes saturated
Creation and exploitation of previously non-existent fields
Technological possibilities are endless
Something being destroyed and something else is created
10. Classical Liberalism
Pg. 66 (course kit) (September 25 )
How the free market it is the key to social development
Connect ideology and how we view our lives
Society was transforming, challenging the rules
Idea that capitalism will balance things out (Wealth and poverty)
Emphasis on Free Market
It is about civil liberty, like the right to vote, the rights to individual people.
Individual civil rights.
Idea that the state should no inhibit individuals from pursuit of economic goals without
being hindered by the state
11. Moral Economy
Pg. 131 (course kit)
Bread riots in England 12. Marilyn Waring
Marilyn Waring was discussed during lecture after watching a documentary entitled “Who’s
Counting”. Waring was a feminist and economist
A documentary (Who’s Counting)
Feminist and economist
Parliament from new Zealand
Raising a child was valueless did not believe that
Everyone accepts the GDP and she argues that
women can work 13 hours a day, but nothing comes out of it (cleaning, taking care of
Value of work
Planet becomes a factor of production
The market doesn’t care what happens down the line, it is immediate