Two of the following four questions will appear on the exam. You will be asked to answer one of
1. Outline the content, origin and evolution of conservative, liberal and socialist ideology
Apolitical ideology is a belief system that explains and justifies a preferred economic and
governmental order for society, offers strategies for its maintenance or attainment and helps give
meaning to public events, personalities and policies. Throughout this essay, the reading by
Marchak will displayed. The content, origin and evolution of Liberal, Socialist and Conservative
ideology will be outlined.
The beginning of free market, scientific development and other big changes in early
modern times in Europe led to new ideologies. One of the most significant one’s was Liberalism,
which grew in England in the 17th century. It developed on ideas of responsibilities of an
individual and on the relationship to the society and the individual.As liberalism was the
dominant ideology during the French revolution, Conservatism arose as a counter ideology
during that time. The main oppose to Liberalism was that it ruins tradition. In 19th century, as
Europe became industrialized and as working class was created, Socialism was created.
The liberalist ideology, differ the most from the conservative ideology, but sharing the
socialist concept that human behavior is to be guided by a reason. In liberalism, the individual is
the most important unit of human society. It displays the belief that humans are achievement
orientated and are constantly wanting and competing to accumulate more and is guided by a
reason and self-interest. People are morally equal and can make choices by themselves and
improve their lives. For liberals, change is natural and expected.As for the role of government, it
should promote equality of right and opportunity within the society. The government should be
limited, stay out of the economy and its highest value should be liberty.
Conservatism, on the other hand, put the class at the basic unit of analysis. Society is
guided by tradition and morality, generally based off of a divine code of conduct. People are not
equal by birth, cannot decide by themselves and ones position in society is irreversible. Change
is seen as a bad thing and when it occurs, it has to be consistent with tradition. Government’s goal is to provide for human needs, especially the needs for order, stability and control rather
than protect rights.
In socialism, the community is the most important unit of society. Reason is the guide to
behavior and humans fundamentally equal. Ones position in society depends both on needs and
abilities. Change is natural, desirable and should be always created. Like conservatives, society
under a socialist lens is organic and collectivist. The difference is the role of government, which
is to promote conditions that will bring equality of condition. The government is to control the
Marchak drew the evolution of these three ideologies. Liberalism evolved into
Libertarianism, which believes that capitalism is the perfect economic and social order and
everything should become a commodity.Another kind of liberalism is Contemporary Liberalism,
which has mant similarities with the classical one, except that the modern believes that the state
should be a welfare state. Conservatism evolved into Neo- Conservatism that believes in
restricted government, free market and individualism. Socialism evolved into an ideology that
believes that small groups should have control over their collective lives: SocialistAnarchism.
Communism, that believes that capitalism should be destroyed by force, has also evolved from
In conclusion, ideology guides the economic and the political order of society. In this essay I
demonstrated the origins, the content and the evolution of three major political ideologies.
2. Compare and contrast the view of capitalism contained in the theories of a)Adam Smith,
b) Karl Mar, c) Joseph Schumpeter and d) John Maynard Keynes.
Capitalism is an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are
controlled by private owners for profit. Throughout this essay, the theories ofAdam Smith, Karl
Marx Joseph Schumpeter and John Maynard Keynes will displayed.
Karl Marx: negative view of capitalism ; Karl Marx was a 19th century Socialist thinker who
was very influential in establishing Marxist theory, which would influence a wide array of
Communist movements, and most famously the thinking of Vladimir Lenin, the founder of the
Soviet Union in 1917. Marx believed that human history could be conceived of as the constant interplay between classes, and that class struggle motivated historical change. He saw the
―bourgeois‖ upper classes, the owners of private property, as the exponent of oppression, since
they exploited the labour of the ―proletariat‖ working class, and did not provide them with the
means to change this state of affairs. He believed that only through a revolution, in which the
proletariat overthrew the pro-bourgeois government.
Adam Smith: positive view of capitalism. He was a 18th century Scottish philosopher considered
the world's first free-market capitalists, father of classical economics and a strong proponent of
free, unfettered trade; contrasted with Mercantilist policies of European states during the 18th
and 19th centuries. He compiled these ideas in ―An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the
Wealth of Nations‖ which would establish the framework for Classical Economics. It notes the
concepts of Supply and Demand, minimizing the role of government intervention and taxation
over the free-markets. Through self-interest, Smith believed that individuals would seek
economic decisions that would naturally lead to beneficial economic outcomes for all members
of society. Rational self-interest and competition were the fundamental human motivations,
according to Smith, which could provide for a society in which scarce resources were efficiently
John Maynard Keynes: positive view of capitalism, belief that it goes through ―boom‖ and
―bust‖ cycles however, and proactive government policies can change. Keynes was a British
economist who is considered the ―father of modern economics‖. Keynes believed that
economic recessions could be remedied through a proactive fiscal and monetary policy on the
part of national governments. He said that economic slumps (recessions) were rooted in a
decrease in consumer con