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Social Science
SOSC 1000
Terry Conlin

Definitions 1. Honour: is a state or condition of being disciplined, self controlled, trustworthy, and having integrity. All these moral characteristics that a person may prove to have are acquired through ones actions in life situations. Honour is not only restricted to a single person it can expand from one human being to his entire family, tribe or even village. It is considered the social worth of a family. Honour must be obtained and maintained through respect of the community. It is very valued in a traditional community/society. It varies with gender, an honourable man for example is expected to treat females with respect and provide protection, and does his job honestly, teach his children good manners. On the other hand, women have different expectations like taking care of her household, providing for her home, acting appropriately in public. Honour being a very sex linked characteristic has a lot to do with shame and public appearance. Harming a family’s honour may result in the killing of the member in order to restore their honour. The constant threat to lose honour amongst a society leads people to always be reserved and to maintain a reputable image. 2. Moral Economy: is an economy where justice prevails, one where equality is achieved for all community members. An economy where every household, let alone every member is not only a consumer but a productive element in the society. It is an economy based on the good of the crowd and not the individual. An economy controlled by the community to benefit the citizens. Also in a more classical conservative society favours “charitable” organizations ones that do not engage in “frowned upon” activities. And in a modern sense an economy that finds balance between economic freedom and ones social needs. The government has a moral obligation to look after those at the bottom. Several parties in traditional societies constitute the moral economy of the poor. Ex: food riots in the 18 century in England took place, due to hunger, soaring prices and malpractices among dealers. (Lack of enforcement of moral economy by the government/those in power). 3. New International Division of Labour: in terms of economics it is the act where the labour and materials required for the making/production of a product is transferred to places where the labour and assembly required is cheaper. It is a product of technological advancements which made it easier to achieve their goals such as outsourcing of labour etc. There are a few significant developments that helped achieve such goals. The first one is easier and more robust transportation on a global level making shipping to and from countries like China much simpler. The second helping factor i s the efficient and advanced communication and exchange of information between all parties involved. The final addition making new internatioZnal division of labour easier is the segmentation or breaking up of production/jobs in general. Division of labour is a very capitalist idea where jobs become systematic for efficiency and production speed management to maximize profit. Two much related topics, one causing the new international division of labour and one the other resulting from it, need to be discussed and defined. The first one is globalization which is the unification of the world’s economy by removing barriers such as international trading tariffs and so on and the other is structural alienation. Structural alienation resulted from the division of labour. As Marx argues, alienation has made work not of a man’s nature, he rather feels oppressed or working for someone else. It separates a person from his job. 4. Holmberg’s Mistake: is the common term used to identify the misinterpretation of Allan Holmberg whom was living with native Indians in North America for 2 years and was studying there living habits. In his account that he kept of their living habits he describes them as being culturally backward. Having no religion, musical instruments, or even utilizing domestic animals; Holmberg describes them as backward people, not aspiring to change and advancement. The natives were forced to mate with their relatives because there population had been wiped-out due to epidemics such as smallpox and influenza prior to Allen Holmberg’s arrival. Christopher Columbus had made the same mistake upon his arrival to North America and describes the natives he meets in the same way as Holmberg. This is referred to as Holmberg’s mistake because he had mistaken and had unnoticed the linguistic and archaeological evidence that suggested both recent migration and significant past construction in the region. Holmberg also missed the fact that his subjects were impoverished and adrift for a reason of being almost wiped out. 5. GDP: is the gross domestic product which measures the wealth of a country. There is no single accurate and adequate measure that can measure a government “state” involvement in its country’s economy; however government spending is a portion of GDP. In the equation, GDP = C (consumption) +I (investment) + G (government spending) + (imports - exports) = Aggregate Demand (total demand on finished goods and services). Government has become more involved economically increasing the GDP of Canada from the 1920 – 1950 a common trend among western democratic governments. 6. Global Casino: Another term for the 'stock market'. Due to the overwhelming amount of money gambled and risks taken on a daily basis at stock markets around the world, they may collectively be understood to be the 'global casino'. This is another product of technological advancements & globalization which helps capital being transferred where it benefits the most taking in account the difference in labour costs , political stabilities , and international regulations . Trade, world markets, increasing profitability and having no concern but for business owners. Everything is short term, valuing paper economy over real economy. 7. Classical Conservatism: A traditional ideology that serves as a guide to actions those are legitimate and acceptable. These societies are moral yet judgmental; they place high emphasis on religion, prestige, honour etc. They dislike and distrust change. 8. Structural Alienation: Alienation is a result of capitalism and exists in capitalist societies. It is a result of 3 things. First, division of labour; second creation of land and labour i.e. comodification; and finally the concentration on ownership of production sources. Alienation especially in work causes workers to become more and more ignorant as they engage in repetitive actions for long hours like Smith argues. Marx also mentions how it causes workers to feel that working is unnatural and working for someone else is oppressing. Alienation from products and from self (human) has changed labour into a commodity being bought and sold. 9. Marilyn Waring: a political economist and feminist from New Zealand who worked in the United Nations as a Systems of Assistance Accounts which gained the attention of New Zealand’s government due to her success at such a young age. She gives time a great value. Her spoke about how women work around the world and still don’t gain recognition for it, exactly like their house hold work and child care isn’t recognized. She noticed that societies label women as economically inactive. Women are not only invisible but are also considered problematic and unproductive. Waring also argued for poverty and what generates it. In the United Nations of system account all nations must follow the rules of the account or else they can’t borrow money and may be cut off from the rest of nations. She argues about an economical system that can kill us, where there is no value for unpaid work which leaves out half the work population, which encourages an environmental disaster. Arms trade of unregistered weapons being sold result in poverty. War contributes to the
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