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Fall 2013 Study Questions.docx

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1000
Terry Conlin

Fall 2013 Study Questions Holmberg’s Mistake Used to be orthodox (Common sense) Dominant paradigm Indigenous people of western hemisphere were timeless, no history and no progress, in the western hemisphere Under intense intellectual attack and Discredited Not true, because people have developed society ­ Holmbergs Mistake can be referred to mythistory in some way. Because we are still not sure about the history of NativeAmericans, for some people our assumption concerning them are true history and for some, they are just a simple myth. ­ Recent realization that assumptions made about natives were wrong Paradigm A theoretical framework guiding research Thomas Hobbes ­ An English philosopher who was born at Westport, England. ­ Studies human behaviours ­ Significance: Made many contributions to social science and philosophy (founded SOSC) ­ Survival of the fittest, he speculated how human act in a state of nature ­ Believed that people would compete against each other in a state of nature unless they subject themselves to a common power so they live in security. ­ Peace was achieved when human finally said “I convey my right to this party, upon conditions that you pass yours to the same”; people said “Lets make a contract. Each of us will limit our personal freedom in order to have some social stability. ­ Limiting own power Mythistory ­ Mythistory - history made of, or mixed with myth ­ Myth and history both explain how things got to be the way they are by telling some sort of story ­ Myth lies at the basis of human society ­ General statements about the world and its parts ­ Auseful instrument for piling human groups in their encounters with one another and their natural environments ­ Amingling of truth and falsehood, blending of history with ideology. ­ Myth: Fictional story that is not defended by actual facts or proofs ­ History: True story that happened in the past defended by actual facts Classical Conservatism ­ A belief that there are classes that capitalism necessarily involves inequality, and that the marketplace should not be the focus of the most important social decisions ­ Ahigh positive value to class inequalities ­ Requires leadership o Successful leader look over less were established. ­ Values a “national hierarchy” ­ Views of society: Conservatives viewing it as an organic whole within which individuals have assigned places. Honor ­ Honor is one of the most important aspects that every family should have as it defines its reputation ­ Concerned with strength and position rather than justice ­ Comes from Tradition, wealth, and knowledge ­ Represents the strength of the family and its moral solidarity ­ The honor of the family defined one’s position in Society ­ Honorable people/ families gain respect and prestige Legitimation Function ­ Genius of Keynesianism ­ Designed to reconcile those people who are exploited... (?) ­ Buy the loyalty of the proletariat (workers/working class people) ­ Provide workers with benefits is significant ­ Programs like funds for their children and education etc. ­ Buy the loyalty of the working class, thus their loyalty to capitalism is sustained Immiseration ­ Making dehumanized workforce ­ Reduction in wages ­ Poor working conditions ­ The value of goods and services is determined by the amount of labour required for their production. However, in a capitalist society the workers never receive this true value because the property owners retain some of if (surplus value) ­ The workers were exploited, and their exploitation was made worse by the practice of hiring workers at the lowest possible wages to work the longest possible hours. ­ Because of competition, they had to pay their workers the wages determined by the labour market; to compete successfully; they had to invest their capital in new equipment in order to raise production. ­ Immiserized: those who have jobs where they usually have to work in bad conditions for very low wages ­ Westray story: Workers were immiserized Creative Destruction ­ Centered on how we view our modern capitalist societies, negative aspect of capitalism, ties into moral economy. ­ Creative Destruction, specified by Heilbroner: Newer creations of technology and products replace the older and lets the people continue to want and consume more and more. ­ Capitalism would benefit from it (the state) ­ Accodring to Shumpetr it is the displacement of one process or product by another. Therefore, it destroys old businesses and establishes new ones. It let people continue to want to buy more and more. Westray Marilyn Waring ­ Feminist economist ­ Unpaid work being ignored– no nonsense point of view, took another view at theeconomic structure, was an economist as well. ­ Significance: encouraged to take another look, in reality of life of women and inequality and gender roles in different groups, simplified basic concepts of economy, asked important questions, what counts as growth (in Columbus reading, growth and progress and how its sometimes doesn’t consider human cause). ­ Nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize New International Division of Labour ­ People are designated to your tasks, division of your levels ­ Division of labour to different parts; to make life easier (For Example: The Production of a Pen, someone makes a cap, ink, style of the container etc.) It is faster and efficient. ­ Making their products in 3 world country is cheaper and has more raw materials. Dominant Ideology ­ Most political ideology at the time is the one that is accepted. Columbus’s story, Holmbergs mistake, justifies exercise of power, acts as a guide to what’s the right thing to do and why you did it, if everyone accepts it, the ideology will never change. ­ Social reality doesn’t appear to us directly. It is revealed to our understanding through a screen of assumptions, beliefs, explainations, values and unexamined knowledge. ­ Ideology directs our attention to some realities but not to others, interprets what our senses transmit to our brain, evaluates information not on its own merits but in terms of what is already accepted as the truth. ­ Some parts of it are deliberately transmitted from childhood. Some parts are deliberately transmitted by parents, schools, the media, and the other institutions of our society. ­ Ideology is a fairly and coherent and comprehensive set of ideas that explains and evaluates social conditions, helps people understand their place in society, and provides a program for social and political action. ­ Purpose: Justifies the exercise of power ­ Explains and passes judgment ­ An Ideology identifies political right and political wrong ­ Maps out the inter-connections between politics and other spheres of human activity ­ In short, ideology acts as a guide in terms of how we should behave and provides a legitimization of how we do behave. ­ An ideology makes sense of the world around us and provides us with lenses or glasses through which we filter an increasingly amount of information ­ Provides consistency and coherence in a perfectly chaotic and confusing world Aggregate Demand: ­ Goods wanted in a certain society to a given time ­ The total demand for gods and services within the economy given at a price level ­ It is significant because of using government expenditure to lower high unemployment and inflation. ­ It focuses to get the economy at leave of full employment Moral Economy of the Crowd ­ From a traditional view there was no economy. ­ It’s important because it shows that social significance of growing socialism. ­ Bread riots in England, scarcity and high price of bread, changes between economic and political forces, peasants used to fair price, peasants revolve and cling to moral economy (if you are poor, you should be able to afford bread) ­ Explained as collective action representing the “moral economy” of the era argues that the riots were symptomatic of society caught between changing economic and political forces. ­ From a mercantilist, feudal economy system to one of laissez-faire market capitalism. ­ Market economy (demand and supply) ­ You can cheat, free market economy. ­ Working hard and making money Classical Liberalism (Lec.4) ­ The ideological perspective on political and sociological issues that preaches equality of rights and opportunities, atomistic society, limited government, and people continuously striving to achieve something and progress in society. ­ This view is opposite from Socialism that preachers that society is natural, individuals are rather cooperative than competitive ­ Also to conservatism that supports the idea of inequality of people and the idea of people being born with their classes where they have to remain for the rest of their lvies. ­ PERSONAL FREEDOM • Freedom is central to Liberalism- Freedom FROM • The absence of coercion on the individual • It is the government that must be restraint so that individuals can have freedom • Should be left alone to have their own rules of conduct • FREEDOM FROM ­ LIMITED GOVERNMENT • If gov’t is the primary source of power, there must be real restraints put on the power • 1. Legitimate for the government to provide the means necessary to protect citizens from external threat/invasion • 2. LegitimateA police force to protect us from each other • 3. Legitimate for government to provide a series of court to uphold the law; to live up to contracts that we freely enter into with one another ­ EQUAULITY OF RIGHT • They believe life in one big competitive game; rules should be same for player/citizens • Subject to the same set of rules • No special privileges for anyone • No such thing as affirmative action • Not equality of opportunity- but equality of right • Acommit of procedural ­ CONSENT OF THE GOVERNMENT • Those citizens who have a stake in society (property owners) • Consent of those citizens that governments can govern to make their policies legitimate Just in Time Workforce (JIT) ­ Asystem that requires an ability to adapt and change products more rapidly than the mass production of homogenous goods. ­ Positive: JIT system brings better productivity which is very important for businesses and thus, better employee involvement ­ Negative: Manufacturer depends o
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